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The Grand Convergence of Computing, Telecommunications, and Media: A Technologist’s Viewpoint 8 th INRIA-Industry Meeting: Computer Software for Telecommunications and Multimedia. Prof. Randy H. Katz EECS Department University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-1776

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Prof. Randy H. Katz EECS Department University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-1776


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    1. The Grand Convergence of Computing, Telecommunications, and Media: A Technologist’s Viewpoint8th INRIA-Industry Meeting:Computer Software for Telecommunications and Multimedia Prof. Randy H. Katz EECS Department University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-1776 randy@cs.Berkeley.edu http://www.cs.Berkeley.edu/~randy

    2. Presentation Outline • Market Forces and Technology Trends • Comparison of Internet and Telephony • Third Generation Telecommunications Architectures (and Beyond) • Internet-based Open Services Architecture • Summary and Conclusions

    3. Presentation Outline • Market Forces and Technology Trends • Comparison of Internet and Telephony • Third Generation Telecommunications Architectures (and Beyond) • Internet-based Open Services Architecture • Summary and Conclusions

    4. Technology Trends & Predications • Fastest growing segments of telecomms: (i) mobile telephony & (ii) Internet/www • Enabling mobile access to information • Full digitization of the phone network, driven by digital mobile networks, with a shift towards universal IP-based core network • Voice over IP is happening rapidly • Data will be the network traffic majority, voice (& video) the minority • Fastest growing applications will be web-based transactions, not voice & not videoconferencing

    5. Mobile Telephone & Internet Users Millions Mobile Telephone Users Internet Users Year Source: Ericsson Radio Systems, Inc.

    6. Cellular Phone Growth:An International Phenomenom By Year 2000: • One in three telephones will be mobile • Mobility becomes a lifestyle % of main lines that are mobile phones Source: Economist, 4 May 1996

    7. Hong Kong on the Move Millions of Telephone Lines Source: Pyramid Research in The Economist, 31 Oct 98

    8. Shift Toward Digital Mobile Access Network Millions ofSubscribers Provides a ubiquitous infrastructure for wireless data as well as voice Digital Analog Year Source: Ericsson Radio Systems, Inc.

    9. Shift to Broadband Access Forecast American Households with Internet Connections (millions) Source: Forrester Research in The Economist, 7 Nov 98

    10. Shift Towards Data-Centered Core Network • The dramatic rise of the Internet and the World Wide Web: >50% of telecomm traffic in Bay Area is already data • Conventional circuit-switched PSTN infrastructure brought to its knees • IP Dialtone • Single network for wireless access, Internet access, and voice access • E.g., Sprint ION: Integrated On-Demand Network, MCI/WorldCom’s On-Net, Qwest Communications, etc.

    11. Presentation Outline • Market Forces and Technology Trends • Comparison of Internet and Telephony • Third Generation Telecommunications Architectures (and Beyond) • Internet-based Open Services Architecture • Summary and Conclusions

    12. Strengths Intelligence at the end points; No state in the network; Highly decentralized control Enables operation over very heterogeneous collection of access technologies; few assumptions about the network necessary Achieves robust communications through packet switching & store-and-forward routing Depends on cooperative forwarding of packets Weaknesses No differentiated service No control mechanisms for managing bottleneck links Store-and-forward routing introduces variable delay in end-to-end performance Decentralized control makes introduction of new protocols/functions difficult since all end nodes must be upgraded Lack of truly trusted infrastructure leads to security problems Internet Technology

    13. Strengths Requires no end-point intelligence; supports heterogeneous end devices Provides excellent performance for voice End-to-end performance guarantees achieved through well-defined signaling layer to switching function True utility functionality through sophisticated and hierarchically arranged switches controlled by service providers Weaknesses Achieves performance by overallocating resources 3.4 KHz audio voice band signal converted to 64 kbps digital representation Switching design determined by statistics of call traffic Difficult to add new services to the so-called “Intelligent Network” due to complex feature interaction Expensive approach to robustness PSTN Technology

    14. Strengths Virtual circuits with call set-up to manage scarce resources and achieve QoS guarantees Fixed/small size “cells” to enable fast switching Sophisticated statistical multiplexing mechanisms to make possible variety of traffic models Integrated services Weaknesses Connection-orientation has some problems with latency and robust operation; every cell must follow same path in order ATM unlikely to be a universal end-to-end technology, especially for data traffic in local area Quaranteed performance end-to-end in heterogeneous environments is lost ATM: The Grand Convergence?

    15. Support for multipoint-to-multipoint multicast communications Support for mobility & mobile route optimization Reservation-based resource allocation Performance promises Nice scaling properties Soft state in the network allows robust recovery to failure; protocol works around link and switch failures Software-based codecs 64 kbps/PCM coding vs. 36 kbps ADPCM, 17 kbps GSM, 9 kbps LPC Adequate video at 28.8 to 128 kbps Real Time Protocol (RTP) Ends adapt audio/video streaming rates to what the network can support Easy integration of new services like proxies Solve performance problems by adding more bandwidth Next Generation Internet

    16. Internet Telephony Packet Data to Analog Voice Analog Voice to Packet Data Internet Local Call Local Call Gateway Gateway SF to Frankfurt via Internet Service: $0.28 per min via AT&T Long Distance: $1.25 per min Less expensive infrastructure Circumvents government-backed monopolies Existing long distance tariffs far exceed costs WTO worldwide deregulation Why so Cheap? Source: G-Cubed

    17. Internet Telephony • Quality Issues: High Latencies/Dropped Packets • Deployment of (virtual) private networks • Faster/scalable hardware reduces gateway latency • RSVP + H.323 + Reconstruction of lost packets + Better voice coding at 8 kbps • VoIP: Voice over Internet Protocol Forum • Short term: circuit-switched local infrastructure plus packet-switched wide-area infrastructure • Wide-area b/w is a commodity, local access is not • Many leading telecomms already doing this • Longer term: migration towards “always on” digital broadband data connections

    18. Presentation Outline • Market Forces and Technology Trends • Comparison of Internet and Telephony • Third Generation Telecommunications Architectures (and Beyond) • Internet-based Open Services Architecture • Summary and Conclusions

    19. Third Generation Telecommunications Architectures • FPLMTS/UMTS/IMT-2000 • “Universal multimedia information access with mobility spanning residences, businesses, public-pedestrian, mobile/vehicular, national/global” • Converged common air interface: wideband CDMA • Beyond the Third Generation • Convergence on a common core network • GSM/BISDN/SS7-based vs. IP-based • Action will be in architectures that support rapid service deployment • Telecomm-based “Intelligent Network” (IN, TMN, TINA) vs. Internet-based Client-Server (HTML, JAVA, mobile code)

    20. Satellite Regional Area Low-tier High-tier Local Area Wide Area Low Mobility High Mobility One View of the Future UC Berkeley BARWAN Project: “Bay Area Research Wireless Access Network” • Diverse Air Interfaces with Seamless Mobility • Software Agents for Heterogeneity Management • Universal IP-based Core Network

    21. Important Trends Re-Visited • Multimedia/Voice over IP networks • Lower cost, more flexible packet-switching core network • Simultaneous delay sensitive and delay insensitive flows (RSVP, Class-based Queuing, Link Scheduling) • Intelligence shifts to the network edges • User-implemented functionality • Programmable intelligence inside the network • Proxy servers intermixed with switching infrastructure • TACC model & Java code: “write once, run anywhere” • Rapid new service development • Speech-enabled services for mobile users • Implications for (cellular) network infrastructure of the 21st century? • High BW data (384 Kb/s-2 Mb/s): Reliable Link Protocols

    22. Smart Appliances/Thin Clients PDA PCS Qualcomm PDQ Phone

    23. Top Gun MediaBoard • Participates as a reliable multicast client via proxy in wireline network • Top Gun Wingman • “Thin” presentation layer in PDA with full rendering engine in wireline proxy

    24. Presentation Outline • Market Forces and Technology Trends • Comparison of Internet and Telephony • Third Generation Telecommunications Architectures (and Beyond) • Internet-based Open Services Architecture • Summary and Conclusions

    25. The Future: Internet-basedOpen Services Architecture “Today, the telecommunications sector is beginning to reshape itself, from a vertically to a horizontally structured industry. … [I]t used to be that new capabilities were driven primarily by the carriers. Now, they are beginning to be driven by the users. … There’s a universe of people out there who have a much better idea than we do of what key applications are, so why not give those folks the opportunity to realize them. … The smarts have to be buried in the ‘middleware’ of the network, but that is going to change as more-capable user equipment is distributed throughout the network. When it does, the economics of this industry may also change.” George Heilmeier, Chairman Emeritus, Bellcore “From POTS to PANS: Telecommunications in Transition”

    26. The Network Infrastructure of the Future • The Challenge • Developing service intensive, network-based, real-time applications • Securely embedding computational resources in the switching fabric • Providing an open, extensible network environment: heterogeneity • Computing • Encapsulating legacy servers & partitioning “thin” client functionality • Scalability: 100,000s of simultaneous users in the SF Bay Area • High BW IP backbones + diverse access networks • Different coverage, bandwidth, latency, and cost characteristics • Third generation cellular systems: UMTS/IMT2000 • Next gen WLANs (Bluetooth) & broadband access nets (DSL/cable) • Diverse appliances beyond the handset or PC • Communicator devices plus servers in the infrastructure

    27. S. S. 7 Cellular “Core” Network ICEBERG: Internet-based core for CEllular networks BEyond the thiRd Generation NINJA: A Service Architecture for Internet-Scale Systems

    28. Internet-Scale Systems • Extremely large, complex, distributed, heterogeneous, with continuous and rapid introduction of new technologies • Feasible architectures • Decentralized, scalable algorithms • Dynamically deployed agents where they are needed;“Big infrastructure, small clients” • Incremental processing/communications growth • Careful violation of traditional layering • Implementation approach based on incremental prototyping, deployment, evaluation, experimentation

    29. NINJA Capabilities • Plug and play wide-area software components • Automatic discovery, composition, and use • Powerful operators • Clusters, databases, and agents • Viable component economics • Subscription, pay per use • Supports diverse devices, sensors, actuators • Connects everything • Ubiquitous support for access and mobility

    30. NINJA Active Infrastructure “Smart Spaces” Active Proxies: Active network routers Soft state Interchangeable Bases: Scalable, available servers Persistent state Service discovery Public-key infrastructure Databases Home Base User state E-mail User tracking Units: Client Devices Sensors & Actuators

    31. NINJA Active Infrastructure • Computing resources inside the routing topology, not just at the leaves • Paths chosen for location of operators as much as for shortest # of hops • Mobile code that specializes the services provided by servers • Mobility, management of bottleneck links, “integration” services, service handoff Server Client Proxy Router Compute Node

    32. ICEBERG Capabilities • Cellular/IP Interworking • IP network provisioning for scalability • “Soft” QoS for delay-sensitive flows • Multinetwork mobility and security support • Telephony Service Architecture on NINJA • Computing resources among switching infrastructure • Computationally intensive services: e.g., voice-to-text • Service and server discovery • Security, authentication, and billing

    33. Cellular/IP Interworking • GSM BTS interfaced to IP core network • Mapping IP signaling to SS7 radio management • Call admission and handoff • Mobility management interworking • Mobile IP home agent/foreign agent + GSM HLR/VLR • Handoff between Mobile IP and GSM networks • Scalability, security of Mobile IP • Generalized redirection agents • User- or service-specified dynamic policy-based redirection • 1-800 service, email to pagers, etc. • Service mobility as a first class object

    34. Telephony Service Architecture • Rapid service deployment • Packet voice for computer-telephony integration • Speech- and location-enabled applications • Complete interoperation of speech, text, fax/image • Mobility and generalized routing redirection • New services for innovative apps • Encapsulating complex data transformation, e.g., speech-to-text, text-to-speech • Composition of services, e.g., Voice mail-to-email, email-to-voice mail • Location-aware information services, e.g., traffic reports • Multicast-enabled information services

    35. Universal In-box Transparent Information Access Speech-to-Text Speech-to-Voice Attached-Email Call-to-Pager/Email Notification Email-to-Speech All compositions of the above! Policy-based Location-based Activity-based

    36. Operators: transformation aggregation agents Connectors: abstract wires ADUs varying semantics uni/multicast Interfaces: strongly typed language independent set of AM handlers Leverage all COM objects NINJA Operator/Connector/Path Model

    37. Implementing Applications via Path Optimization • Voice Control of A/V devices in a “Smart Room” • Multistage processing transformation • Strongly typed connectors • Automated path generation • Service discovery storage A/V Devices Path ICSI Speech Recognizer Text to Command Room Entity Audio Text Cmd Microphone Cell phone Response to Client

    38. Experimental Testbed Fax IBM WorkPad Image/OCR Text Speech MC-16 Ericsson CF788 Motorola Pagewriter 2000 WLAN Pager 306 Soda 405 Soda 326 Soda “Colab” GSM BTS Network Infrastructure Millennium Cluster Smart Spaces Personal Information Management Millennium Cluster

    39. Presentation Outline • Market Forces and Technology Trends • Comparison of Internet and Telephony • Third Generation Telecommunications Architectures (and Beyond) • Internet-based Open Services Architecture • Summary and Conclusions

    40. Summary and Conclusions • Common network core: optimized for data, based on IP, enabling packetized voice, supporting user/terminal/service mobility • Major challenge: open, composable services architecture--the wide-area “operating system” of the 21st Century • Beyond the desktop PC: information appliances supported by infrastructure services • Our approach: NINJA Platform • Infrastructure: Units, Active Proxies, Bases • Services: Operators, Typed Connectors, Paths • IVR applications/speech recognition as a service • Next application: Universal In-Box