slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, UK National Physical Laboratory, UK Texas A&M University, USA PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, UK National Physical Laboratory, UK Texas A&M University, USA

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 29

Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, UK National Physical Laboratory, UK Texas A&M University, USA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Spin Hall effect. J. Wunderlich (1) , B. Kästner (1,2) , J. Sinova (3) , T. Jungwirth (4,5). Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, UK National Physical Laboratory, UK Texas A&M University, USA Institute of Physics ASCR, Czech Republic University of Nottingham, UK.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, UK National Physical Laboratory, UK Texas A&M University, USA' - taya

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Spin Hall effect

J. Wunderlich(1), B. Kästner(1,2), J. Sinova (3), T. Jungwirth (4,5)

  • Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, UK
  • National Physical Laboratory, UK
  • Texas A&M University, USA
  • Institute of Physics ASCR, Czech Republic
  • University of Nottingham, UK

Collaborators: Allan MacDonald, Dimitri Culcer,Ewelina Hankeiwc,Qian Niu, Kentaro Nomura,Nikolai Sinitsyn, Laurens Molenkamp, Winfried Teizer


SHE - Theory(

  • Entin-Wohlman:2005_a
    • O. Entin-Wohlman, A. Aharony, Y. M. Galperin, V. I. Kozub, and V. Vinokur, "Orbital ac spin-Hall effect in the hopping regime", (2005), preprint cond-mat/0502478: on-line
  • Liu:2005_a
    • S. Y. Liu and X. L. Lei, "Vanishing of the Dissipationless Spin Hall Effect in a Diffusive Two-Dimensional Electron Gas with Spin-Orbit Coupling", (2005), preprint cond-mat/0502392: on-line
  • Yao:2005_a
    • Y. Yao, and Z. Fang, "Intrinsic Spin Hall Effect in Semiconductors and Simple Metals: First-Principles Calculations", (2005), preprint cond-mat/0502351: on-line
  • Bernevig:2005_a
    • B. Andrei Bernevig, Taylor L. Hughes, Shou-Cheng Zhang, "Orbitronics: the Intrinsic Orbital Hall Effect in p-Doped Silicon", (2005), preprint cond-mat/0502345: on-line
  • Li:2005_a
    • Jian Li, Liangbin Hu, and Shun-Qing Shen, "Spin resolved Hall effect driven by spin-orbit couplin", (2005), preprint cond-mat/0502102: on-line
  • Hu:2005_a
    • Jiangping Hu, "Spin Polarization and Dichroism Effects by Electric Field", (2005), preprint cond-mat/0502005: on-line
  • Lou:2005_a
    • Ping Lou and Tao Xiang, "Spin Hall current and two-dimensional magnetic monopole in a Corbino disk", (2005), preprint cond-mat/0501307: on-line
  • Nikolic:2004_b
    • Nikolic et al., "Non-Equilibrium Spin Accumulation due to the Spin Hall Effect in Mesoscopic Two-Probe Ballistic Spin-Orbit ", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0412595: on-line
  • Bernevig:2004_e
    • B. Andrei Bernevig and Shou-Cheng Zhang, "Intrinsic Spin-Hall Effect in n-Doped Bulk GaAs", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0412550: on-line
  • Kou:2004_a
    • Su-Peng Kou, Xiao-Liang Qi, and Zheng-Yu Weng, "Conserved Dissipationless Spin Currents in a Doped Mott Insulator", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0412146: on-line
  • Mele:2004_a
    • C.L. Kane and E.J. Mele, "Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Graphene", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0411737: on-line
  • Bernevig:2004_d
    • B. Andrei Bernevig, Xiaowei Yu, Shou-Cheng Zhang, "Maxwell Equation for the Coupled Spin-Charge Wave Propagation", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0411276: on-line
  • Sun:2004_a
    • Qing-feng Sun, Jian Wang, Hong Guo, "Quantum transport theory for nanostructures with Rashba spin-orbital interaction", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0411469: on-line
  • Shekhter:2004_a
    • A. Shekhter, et al., "Chiral spin resonance and spin-Hall conductivity in the presence of the electron-electron interactions", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0411239: on-line
  • Serebrennikov:2004_a
    • Yuri A. Serebrennikov, "Gometric spin dephasing of carriers with strong spin-orbit coupling", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0411683: on-line
  • Chang:2004_a
    • Ming-Che Chang, "The effect of in-plane magnetic field on the spin Hall effect in Rashba-Dresselhaus system", (2004), preprint cond-mat/cond-mat/0411697: on-line
  • Liu:2004_d
    • S. Y. Liu, X. L. Lei, "Spin Hall Effect in a Diffusive Rashba Two-dimensional Electron Gas", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0411629: on-line
  • Bernevig:2004_c
    • B. Andrei Bernevig and Shou-Cheng Zhang, "Intrinsic Spin Hall Effect in the Two Dimensional Hole Gas", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0411457: on-line
  • Mal'shukov:2004_a
    • A.G. Mal'shukov and K.A. Chao, "Spin-Hall conductivity of a disordered 2D electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0410607: on-line
  • Souma:2004_a
    • Satofumi Souma and Branislav K. Nikolic, "Spin Hall Current Driven by Quantum Interferences in Mesoscopic Rashba Rings", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0410716: on-line
  • Shen:2004_b
    • Shun-Qing Shen, et al., "Resonant spin Hall conductance in quantum Hall systems lacking bulk and structural inversion symmetry", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0410169: on-line
  • Sheng:2004_a
    • L. Sheng, D. N. Sheng, and C. S. Ting, "Spin-Hall Effect in Two-Dimensional Electron Systems with Rashba Spin-Orbit Coupling and Disorder", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0409038: on-line
  • Nikolic:2004_a
    • Branislav K. Nikolic, Liviu P. Zarbo, and Satofumi Souma, "Mesoscopic Spin Hall Effect in Multiprobe Semiconductor Bridges", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0408693: on-line


    • B. Andrei Bernevig and Shou-Cheng Zhang, "Spin Splitting and Spin Current in Strained Bulk Semiconductors", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0408442: on-line
  • Khaetskii:2004_a
    • Alexander Khaetskii, "Nonexistence of intrinsic spin currents", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0408136: on-line
  • Rashba:2004_c
    • Emmanuel I. Rashba, "Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0408119: on-line
  • Wang:2004_b
    • Xindong Wang and X.-G. Zhang, "Spin symmetry and spin current of helicity eigenstates of the Luttinger Hamiltonian", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0407699: on-line
  • Dimitrova:2004_b
    • Ol'ga V. Dimitrova, "Spin-Hall Conductivity and Pauli Susceptibility in the Presence of Electron-Electron Interactions", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0407612: on-line
  • Chalaev:2004_a
    • Oleg Chalaev, Daniel Loss, "Spin-Hall conductivity due to Rashba spin-orbit interaction in disordered systems", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0407342: on-line
  • Schmeltzer:2004_a
    • D. Schmeltzer, "Topological spin current", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0406565: on-line
  • Zhang:2004_a
    • Ping Zhang and Qian Niu, "Charge-Hall effect driven by spin force: reciprocal of the spin-Hall effect", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0406436: on-line
  • Dimitrova:2004_a
    • Ol'ga V. Dimitrova, "Universal value of Spin-Hall Conductivity of 2D Rashba metal with impurities", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0405339: on-line
  • Murakami:2004_a
    • Shuichi Murakami, "Spin Hall Effect in p-type Semiconductors", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0405003: on-line
  • Xiong:2004_a
    • Ye Xiong and X.C. Xie, "Spin Hall Conductance in Disordered Two-Dimensional Electron Systems", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0403083: on-line
  • Dyakonov:2004_a
    • M. I. Dyakonov, "Spintronics?", (2004), preprint cond-mat/0401369: on-line
  • -------- 2005 --------
  • Raimondi:2004_a
    • Roberto Raimondi and Peter Schwab, "Spin-Hall effect in a disordered 2D electron-system", Phys. Rev. B 71, 033311 (2005): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0408233: on-line
  • Zhang:2004_b
    • S. Zhang and Z. Yang, "Intrinsic Spin and Orbital-Angular-Momentum Hall Effect", Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 066602 (2005): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0407704: on-line
  • Nomura:2004_a
    • K. Nomura, et al., "Non-vanishing spin Hall currents in disordered spin-orbit coupling systems", Phys. Rev. B 71, 041304 (2005): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0407279: on-line
  • Schliemann:2004_a
    • John Schliemann, Daniel Loss, "Spin-Hall transport of heavy holes in III-V semiconductor quantum wells", Phys. Rev. B 71, 085308 (2005): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0405436: on-line
  • -------- 2004 --------
  • Rashba:2004_d
    • Emmanuel I. Rashba, "Sum rules for spin-Hall conductivity cancelation", Physica B 70, 201309(R) (2004): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0409476: on-line
  • Hankiewicz:2004_b
    • E. M. Hankiewicz, et al., "Manifestation of the spin-Hall effect through transport measurements in the mesoscopic regime", Phys. Rev. B 70, 241301(R) (2004): on-line,
  • Ma:2004_a
    • Xiaohua Ma, et al., "Influences of spin accumulation on the intrinsic spin Hall effect in two dimensional electron gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling", Phys. Rev. B 70, 195343 (2004): on-line,
    • Mishchenko:2004_a
    • E.G. Mishchenko, et al., "Spin current and polarization in impure 2D electron systems with spin-orbit coupling", Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 226602 (2004): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0406730: on-line
  • Bernevig:2004_a
    • B. A. Bernevig, "On the nature of spin currents", Phys. Rev. B 71, 073201 (2004): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0406153: on-line
  • Murakami:2004_b
    • Shuichi Murakami, Naoto Nagaosa, Shou-Cheng Zhang, "Spin Hall Insulator", Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 156804 (2004): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0406001: on-line


    • Wei-Li Lee, et al., "Dissipationless Anomalous Hall Current in the Ferromagnetic Spinel CuCr2Se4-xBrx", Science 303, 1647 (2004): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0405584: on-line
  • Zutic:2004_a
    • Igor Zutic, Jaroslav Fabian and S. Das Sarma, "Spintronics: Fundamentals and applications", Rev. Mod. Phys. 76, 323 (2004): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0405528: on-line
  • Murakam:2004_a
    • Shuichi Murakami, "Absence of vertex correction for the spin Hall effect in p-type semiconductors", Phys. Rev. B 69, 241202 (2004): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0405001: on-line
  • Rashba:2004_b
    • Emmanuel I. Rashba, "Spin currents, spin populations, and dielectric function", Phys. Rev. B 70, 161201 (2004): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0404723: on-line
  • Shen:2004_a
    • Shun-Qing Shen, et al., "Resonant Spin Hall Conductance in Two-Dimensional Electron Systems with Rashba Interaction in a Magnetic Field", Phys. Rev. Lett 92, 256603 (2004): on-line,
    • Inoue:2004_a
    • Jun-ichiro Inoue, et al., "Suppression of the Persistent Spin Hall Current by Defect Scattering", Phys. Rev. B 70, 041303 (2004): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0402442: on-line
  • Hu:2004_a
    • Liangbin Hu, et al., "Effects of spin imbalance on the electric-field-driven quantum dissipationless spin current in p-doped semiconductors", Phys. Rev. B 70, 235323 (2004): on-line,
  • Bernevig:2003_a
    • Bogdan et al., "Dissipationless spin current in anisotropic p-doped semiconductors", Phys. Rev. B 70, 113301 (2004): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0311024: on-line
  • Shen:2003_a
    • Shun-Qing Shen, "Spin Hall effect and Berry phase in two dimensional electron gas", Phys. Rev. B 70, 081311 (2004): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0310368: on-line
  • Sinitsyn:2003_a
    • N. A. Sinitsyn, et al., "Spin-Hall and spin-diagonal conductivity in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling", Phys. Rev. B 70, 081312(R) (2004): on-line,
    • Schliemann:2004_b
    • John Schliemann and Daniel Loss, "Dissipation effects in spin-Hall transport of electrons and holes", Phys. Rev. B 69, 165315 (2004): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0310108: on-line
  • Culcer:2004_a
    • Dimitrie Culcer, et al., "Semiclassical theory of spin transport in spin-orbit coupled systems", Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 046602 (2004): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0309475: on-line
  • -------- 2003 --------
  • Rashba:2003_a
    • Emmanuel I. Rashba, "Spin currents in thermodynamic equilibrium: The challenge of discerning transport currents", Phys. Rev. B 68, 241315 (2003): on-line
  • Culcer:2003_a
    • Dimitrie Culcer, Allan MacDonald, Qian Niu, "Anomalous Hall effect in paramagnetic two dimensional systems", Phys. Rev. B 68, 045327 (2003): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0311147: on-line
  • Hu:2003_a
    • Jiangping Hu, Bogdan A. Bernevig and Congjun Wu, "Spin current in spin-orbit coupling systems", Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 17, 5991 (2003), preprint cond-mat/0310093: on-line
  • Murakami:2003_b
    • Shuichi Murakami, et al., "SU(2) Non-Abelian holonomy and dissipationless spin current in semiconductors", Phys. Rev. B B 69, 235206 (2003): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0310005: on-line
  • Sinova:2004_a
    • Jairo Sinova, et al., "Universal Intrinsic Spin-Hall Effect", Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 126603 (2004): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0307663: on-line
  • Murakami:2003_a
    • Shuichi Murakami, Naoto Nagaosa, Shou-Cheng Zhang, "Dissipationless Quantum Spin Current at Room Temperature", Science 301, 1348 (2003): on-line, preprint cond-mat/0308167: on-line
  • --------

Covered by T.J.


SHE - Experiment(

  • Wunderlich:2004_a 
    • J. Wunderlich, et al. "Experimental observation of the spin-Hall effect in a two dimensional spin-orbit coupled semiconductor system", Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047204 (2005):
    • preprint cond-mat/0410295: on-line
  • Kato:2004_d 
    • Y. K. Kato, R. C. Myers, A. C. Gossard, and D. D. Awschalom, "Observation of the Spin Hall Effect in Semiconductors", Science 306, 1910 (2004): on-line

Covered by J.W.



- Theory remarks

- Comments on experiments

Kerr microscope

Co-planar spin LED

SHE in a bulk


SHE in a 2D

hole gas

[Wunderlich et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047204]

[Kato et. al., Science 306, 1910]



_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _



+ + + + + + + + + + + + +



Ordinary and quantum Hall effects

Lorentz force deflect like-charge particles


Resistance standard;

fractional-charge carriers


Sign and density of

carriers; holes in SC












Anomalous Hall effect

Spin-orbit coupling “force” deflects like-spin particles


Simple electrical measurement

of magnetization











Spin Hall effect

Spin-orbit coupling “force” deflects like-spinparticles

Spin-current generation in non-magnetic systems

without applying external magnetic fields

Spin accumulation without charge accumulation

excludes simple electrical detection





Spin-orbit coupling (relativistic effect)


an electric field

Ingredients: - potential V(r)

- motion of an electron


In the rest frame of an electron

the electric field generates and

effective magnetic field

- gives an effective interaction with the electron’s

magnetic moment




Skew scattering off impurity potential (Extrinsic SHE/AHE)

If only this SO effect then much too weak to give a sizable SHE/AHE


SO-coupling from host atoms (Intrinsic SHE/AHE)

l=0 for electrons  weak SO

l=1 for holes  strong SO

Enhanced in asymmetric QW

intrinsic ahe approach explains many experiments
Intrinsic AHE approach explains many experiments
  • (Ga,Mn)As systems [Jungwirth et al PRL 02, APL 03]
  • Fe [Yao et al PRL 04]
  • Layered 2D ferromagnets such as SrRuO3 and pyrochlore ferromagnets [Onoda and Nagaosa, J. Phys. Soc. Jap. 01,Taguchi et al., Science 01, Fang et al Science 03, Shindou and Nagaosa, PRL 01]
  • Manganites, [Ye et al. PRL 99]
  • Ferromagnetic spinel CuCrSeBr [Lee et al. Science 04]


sAH  1000 (W cm)-1


sAH  750 (W cm)-1

INTRINSIC SPIN-HALL EFFECT:[Murakami et al Science 2003 (cond-mat/0308167)Sinova et al PRL 2004 (cont-mat/0307663)]

Let’s start with a simple model: Rashba SO coupling in a 2DEGs

Inversion symmetry

 no R-SO

Broken inversion symmetry

 R-SO

[Bychkov and Rashba 84]


Heuristic argument: z-component of spin due to precession in effective "Zeeman" field

Classical dynamics in k-dependent (Rashba) field:

LLG equations for small drift adiabatic solution:

classical and kubo formula give the same spin hall conductivity
Classical and Kubo formula give the same spin-Hall conductivity

Color plot of spin-Hall conductivity:

yellow=e/8π and red=0

disorder effects beyond the born approximation for rashba 2deg
Disorder effects: beyond the Born approximation for Rashba 2DEG

Question: Are there any other major effects beyond the finite life time broadening? Can vertex corrections be ignored?

Mal'shukov et al, PRL 04

Raimondi et al, PRB 04

Khaetskii, cond-mat/0408136

Loss et al, cond-mat/0407342 v2

Inoue, Bauer, Molenkamp PRB 04

Ladder sum vertex correction:


Spin Hall effect ?

Intrinsic cancelled by vertex

corrections for infinitely weak


Extrinsic too weak to give

any sizable effect


Ways to solve (go around) the controversy:

- Skew scattering in SO-coupled bands  not done yet

- Intrinsic SHE in Rashba-SO systems beyond

perturbation theory by solving Kubo formula exactly

 inconclusive (finite-size effects)

[Nomura et al. PRB '05]

- Other than Rashba-SO systems (intrinsic AHE explains experiments here)

[Bernevig, Zhang, cond-mat/0411457,


 vertex corrections vanish in all

other studied SO-systems (bulk, 2DHG,..)


- Look at transport in mesoscopic systems instead

of conductivity in the thermodynamic limit

[Nikolic et al., cond-mat/0412595]

[Hankiewicz et al., PRB 04]


- Measure the effect

Kato, Myars, Gossard, Awschalom, [Science 306, 1910]

"Observation of the spin Hall effect

in semiconductors"

Local Kerr effect in n-type GaAs and InGaAs:

~0.03% polarization

Bulk semiconductor  stronger disorder

n-type material  weaker SO-coupling

Not in the intrinsic SHE regime


Experiment “A”




CP [%]


Experiment “B”



CP [%]


E [eV]

Wunderlich, Kästner, Sinova, Jungwirth, [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047204]

Experimental observation of the spin-Hall effect in a two dimensional

spin-orbit coupled semiconductor system

Co-planar spin LED in GaAs 2D hole gas: ~1% polarization


3D electron-2D hole





η [meV]


S [e/8]




E [meV]





10 20 30


p2D [1011 cm-2]

-0.2 0.0 0,2

ky [nm-1]

Self-consistent LDA & 6-band

calculations for the [001] QW

Modulation doping  weak disorder

p-type asymmetric QW  strong SO

Close to the intrinsic SHE regime


Dissipative spin-polarized currents

in non-magnetic systems at B=0

Spin-current is along the applied electric field  proportional to

non-equilibriumdistribution function

asymmetric scattering involving spin-flip

[Ganichev et al.,cond-mat/0403641, Silov et al. APL 04]


Dissipationless intrinsic spin Hall effect

● Heuristic argument: transverse spin current generated between scattering events

Sinova, Culcer, Niu, Sinitsyn, Jungwirth,

MacDonald, PRL 92, 126603 (2004)

● Boltzman equation for current: transverse anomalous velocity in the equilibrium

band structure due to combined E and SO effects

Jungwirth, Niu, MacDonald, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2002)

Murakami, Nagaosa, Zhang, Science 301, 1348-1351 (2003).

normal group velocity

anomalous velocity

Berry curvature: M.V. Berry, Proc. Royal Soc. London (1984)


Caution: the dissipationless transverse intrinsic SHE is accompanied

by a dissipative longitudinal response to the electric field