Clean Air in Bangkok – Reducing Urban Pollution CDP-Environment, Bangkok Thailand October 2006 NESDB-WB Joint Workshop
Bangkok Transport and Environment Context • Lead in Gasoline Phased-out • Two Stroke Motorcycles Phased-out • Continuous Improvements in vehicle emissions and fuel quality standards • Next Target: Gross Polluters and Diesel Emissions Reductions • Manage high polluting buses & trucks • Maintenance – esp. commercial vehicles
Air Quality Trend Bangkok PM10 TSP Annual avg std. = ug./m3 Annual avg std. =0.10 mg./m3 Roadside PM10 Visibility Ambient PM10 Visibility
Causes of Black Smoke from Diesel Engine • Very old age buses • Engines mistuned to gain power • Over-loaded operation • Lack of maintenance • Periodically repowered by imported used engines • Aggressive driving style
Why is Diesel a Problem for Air Quality? • Used by heavy duty traffic Significant emitter of fine particulates, SOx, NOx (secondary PM) associated health impacts • Diesel vehicles have a long life time delays introduction of latest technology • Black smoke major visible nuisance
Reducing PM from diesel vehicle • 1) Cleaner new vehicles and fuels • Low Sulfur fuels • Alternative fuel vehicles, i.e. NGV, hybrid, Bifuel,etc., Biodiesel, Gasohol • Fuel cell, etc • 2) Promoting and Implementing preventive maintenance program • 3) Improving I/M program • 4) Retrofit program • 5) Emission control device
Emission Control Options • Economic: (differentiated) taxes, subsidies, pricing (congestion, parking) • Administrative: emission, energy efficiency and fuel quality standards, restrictions on operation (vehicles, parking), previous history • Technological: fuel improvements, new technologies, CNG retrofit, control devices • Transport policy: traffic management, public transport, NMT
A Quick View of the Components • Database Development • Collation of available data and reports • Vehicle testing for emission factors • GIS-based knowledge base development • Analysis of Options • Identification of Policy, Institutional, Economic and Technical Options • Development of the IDEAS tool for analysis of alternative options • Building synergies with other analytical efforts • Synthesis and Outreach • Consultations/Dissemination of data and analytical work • Selection of management options • Action Plan preparation
Criteria for Option Selection • Cost and benefits • Which measures are (likely) the most cost-effective (Bath/population exposure reduced)? • Compatibility with other sector objectives • Do the measures reinforce existing sector objectives and economic incentives? • Political feasibility • Is there broad support from public and stakeholders for the measure? • Ease of enforcement • How difficult is the implementation and enforcement of the measure?
2 6 5 1 3 2 5 2 4 1 3 5 4 6 6 4 Cost-benefit 1 3 Political viability 2 5 4 Financial feasibility 3 6 1 Social acceptability Effectiveness in different dimensions: What is the ‘best’ option? Effectiveness Pollution reduction
? 2 6 5 1 3 2 5 2 4 1 3 5 4 6 6 4 Cost-benefit 1 3 Political viability 2 5 4 Financial feasibility 3 6 1 Social acceptability Effectiveness in different dimensions: What is the ‘best’ option? Effectiveness Pollution reduction
How to find sustainable action? • Compatibility with other sector objectives • Do they go against, or reinforce, other sector objectives? • Political feasibility • Are there interest groups that would oppose the proposed measures vigorously? • Cost of implementation • Which measures would be the most cost-effective (Rs / population exposure reduced)? • Ease of enforcement • How difficult would it be to carry out the proposed measures or to enforce them?
Concluding Remarks • Improving urban air quality requires coordination of: • policies and actions of many sectors; and • stakeholders from local to national and regional/global levels • Think Big and Take Small Steps • While technical solutions are available, political commitment and institutional issues are most critical in generating positive change • Information and public awareness of urban air pollution levels and impacts are key to support policy change and local action • “Best” steps must weight: Technical feasibility; Cost-Benefit; Political viability; Financial feasibility; Social Acceptability
Next Steps • Solicit More Private Sector Participation • Expanded Testing for more options • Regionalization of the program – more funding for transferring knowledge to other cities and countries • Harmonization with other initiatives and promote Sustainable Urban Transport initiatives (e.g. STEP)
Un-Coordinated Action Coordinated Action How do we go ahead? Goal Comprehensive Strategy Currentsituation
What is the Clean AirInitiative? The Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities is designed to be a network assisting cities in Asia to solve their air quality problems. The initiative was established recently by a group of cities, NGO’s and organizations, including the World Bank, ADB, DBJ, US-AEP & EPA, Ford Motors, GTZ, SDC, Hong Kong EPD, ESCAP, and many others.
CAI-Asia Members CITIES Bangkok,Thailand Chang Mai,Thailand Chengdu,PRC Chittagong,Bangladesh Chongqing,PRC Colombo,Sri Lanka Guangzhou,PRC Hangzhou,PRC Hanoi,Viet Nam Harbin,PRC Ho Chi Minh City,Viet Nam Hyderabad, India Islamabad,Pakistan Kathmandu,Nepal Makati,Philippines Mumbai, India Naga,Philippines Phnom Penh,Cambodia Pune, India Surabaya,Indonesia Tianjin,PRC Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Yogjakarta,Indonesia Balochistan EPA, Pakistan NGAsCentral Pollution Control Board, India Department of Environment, Bangladesh Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Philippines Department of Transportation and Communications, Philippines Dhaka Transport Coordination Board, Bangladesh Metro Manila Development Authority,Philippines Ministry of Environment, Cambodia Ministry of Environment, Indonesia Ministry of Public Works and Transport, Cambodia Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, India Pollution Control Department, Thailand State Environmental Protection Administration (PRC focal point) Viet Nam Register, Viet Nam 42 NGOs and Academic Institutions in the Region DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES Asian Development Bank Australian Dept. for Environment and Heritage German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) United States Asia Environmental Partnership World Bank FULL PRIVATE SECTOR Member Ford Motor Shell Company ASSOCIATE PRIVATE SECTOR Member AVL Corning ACFA DEKRA Cerulean EMITEC MAHA SGS IPIECA ESP
PM Emissions from Mobile Sources in BKK (1997) 14% 3% 31% 52% Gasoline LDD HDD Motorcycle source of pollutant Composition of Vehicles in BKK (2001)
Role of the World Bank: Technology Ladder Inefficiency Gap Social and Institutional Realities Time