The Brain. Lecture 2 Ali B Alhailiy. Brain Anatomy. ANATOMY. ANATOMY. Stroke.
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Ali B Alhailiy
1.Inability to move one or more limbs on one side of the body.
2. Inability to understand or formulate speech.
3. Inability to see one side of the visual field.
1. Physical examination (neurological examination)
A physical examination, including taking a medical history of the symptoms and a neurological status, helps giving an evaluation of the location and severity of a stroke. It can give a standard score on e.g., the NIH stroke scale ??????.
For diagnosing ischemic stroke in the emergency setting:
A. CT scans (without contrast enhancements)
sensitivity= 89%specificity= 100%MRI scan
sensitivity= 81%specificity= 100%
why we didn’t start with MRI ????
1- intra-axial hemorrhage that is, it occurs within the brain tissue rather than outside of it.
. There are two main kinds of intra-axial hemorrhages: intraparenchymalhemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhages.
intraparenchymalbleeds are a serious medical emergency because they can increase intracranial pressurewhich if left untreated can lead to coma and death.
The mortality rate for intraparenchymal bleeds is over 40%.[
2- The other category of intracranial hemorrhage is extra-axial hemorrhage.
WITH OUT CONTRAST
CT of brain with benign right temporal arachnoid cyst
CT WITH CONTRAST
Perifocal edema, or pressure-areas, or where the brain tissue has been compressed also appears hypointense on T1-weighted MRI, they might indicate the presence a diffuse neoplasm (unclear outline)
T1 WITH CONTRAST