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U.S. Census Bureau. Foreign Trade Division Understanding Foreign Trade Data April 23, 2009. U.S. Census Bureau. Overview of Imports and Exports Carol Aristone Commodity Analysis Branch Carol.Ann.Aristone@census.gov. What do the statistics measure? .

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u s census bureau

U.S. Census Bureau

Foreign Trade Division

Understanding Foreign Trade Data

April 23, 2009

u s census bureau1

U.S. Census Bureau

Overview of Imports and Exports

Carol Aristone

Commodity Analysis Branch

Carol.Ann.Aristone@census.gov

what do the statistics measure
What do the statistics measure?
  • The physical movement of goods between:
    • United States, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands
    • Foreign countries.
coverage
Coverage
  • Movement of goods into & out of:
    • U.S. Customs Territory
    • U.S. Virgin Islands
    • Bonded Warehouses
    • Foreign Trade Zones (FTZs)
coverage1
Coverage
  • Goods not included:
    • U.S. trade with U.S. territories
    • Trade between U.S. territories
    • Trade between foreign countries and U.S. territories (other than PR and VI)
    • In transit merchandise through the U.S.
what s not covered in statistics
What’s not Covered in Statistics?
  • Monetary gold & silver
  • U.S. government to U. S. government
  • Imports of articles repaired under warranty
  • Intangibles
  • Personal and household effects
  • Low valued transactions
the harmonized system hs
The Harmonized System (HS)

Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the U.S. Annotated for Statistical Reporting Purposes (HTSUSA)

Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the U.S. (Schedule B)

the hs system
The HS System

17,000+ HTSUSA & 8,000+ Schedule B codes

  • Periodically revised
  • Structure:
    • 2 digit Chapter
    • 4 digit Heading
    • 6 digit sub heading
    • 8 digit legal
    • 10 digit statistical
what is the difference
What is the difference?

Export codes (Schedule B) are maintained by the U.S. Census Bureau.

Import codes are administered by the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC).

Import Codes CAN be used to classify Exports, but Exports codes CAN NOT be used to classify goods for import (Imports has a lot more detail!!)

changes to the htsusa schedule b
Changes to the HTSUSA & Schedule B

Changesoccur three different ways:

  • WCO changes affect the HS (4 or 6 digit) level
  • Legislation – affects the legal (8-digit) level
    • Imports only
  • 484(f) committee – affects the statistical (10-digit) level
related vs non related
Related vs. Non-related
  • Statistics cover the physical movement of goods, regardless of if item is sold
  • When a U.S. manufacturer exports merchandise to their company in France or to a non-related purchaser in Russia, both are counted as trade
valuation
Valuation
  • F.A.S. Export Value (free alongside ship)
  • Value of export at port based on transaction price, including inland freight, insurance other charges incurred (before loaded)
  • Excludes international freight, cost of loading merchandise and any other charges/costs beyond port of export
leases
Leases
  • If merchandise exported for <12 months
    • Non-statistical
  • Consignment - Temp. lease with option to buy
    • Statistical
    • Examples: artwork or aircraft
repairs exports
Repairs – Exports
  • Exporting items for repair
    • Report Ch. 1-97 HS number of item
    • Non-statistical
    • AES export information code TR (temporary export for repair)
  • Exporting items repaired in U.S.
    • Report HS 9801 and value of repair
    • Statistical
foreign trade zones imports
Foreign Trade Zones – Imports
  • Duties not required until goods withdrawn for consumption
  • Importer has choice to pay at the rate of the original foreign materials or the finished product
  • Can result in $3,000 new car
  • No duty if re-exported to foreign country
bonded warehouses imports
Bonded Warehouses – Imports
  • Duty payment deferred
  • No duty if re-exported to foreign countries
general vs consumption
General vs. Consumption

General Imports – measures flow of goods across U.S. border

  • Imports for direct consumption
  • Bonded warehouse entries and FTZ admissions
  • Most widely used measure of imports
general vs consumption cont
General vs. Consumption (cont.)

Imports for Consumption – goods cleared through Customs

  • Imports for direct consumption
  • Bonded warehouse and FTZ withdrawals
valuation1
Valuation
  • Customs Value
    • Generally, price actually paid excluding:
      • Duties
      • Freight
      • Insurance and other charges
    • Relationship b/w parties should not influence value
valuation cont
Valuation (cont.)
  • CIF (cost, insurance, freight)
    • CIF = Customs Value + Import Charges
    • Excludes U.S. import duties
valuation cont1
Valuation (cont.)
  • Dutiable Value
    • Customs value of foreign goods subject to duty
    • Where merchandise is a combination of U.S. and foreign goods, duty is applied only to the foreign value added
valuation cont2
Valuation (cont.)
  • To determine the dutiable value of a combination of U.S. and foreign goods:
      • Example: 9802 provision
      • U.S. value is included in statistics
        • Value is total of domestic + foreign values
      • U.S. Goods indicators show that a portion of the import is domestic materials
      • Publication IM146A
valuation cont3
Valuation (cont.)
  • Duty
    • Collected by CBP
    • FTD generally uses duty as reported to CBP
country sub codes csc
Country Sub-Codes (CSC)
  • Indicates a special program allowing for free or reduced duty
  • Examples: GSP, US-Chile Free Trade Agreement, NAFTA
  • CSC used:
    • 00 = no special programs claimed
    • CA = Goods marked for Canada (NAFTA)
    • MX = Goods marked for Mexico (NAFTA)
    • Full list available on our website
special provisions
Special Provisions
  • Chapter 98 & 99 for National use
    • Ch 98 - duty free/reduction
    • Ch 99 - legislation, executive and administrative actions
special provisions cont
Special Provisions (cont.)
  • 9801 - U.S. goods exported and returned not advanced or improved
    • U.S. origin
    • Previously exported from U.S.
special provisions cont1
Special Provisions (cont.)
  • 9802 – Goods with components of U.S. origin
    • U.S. goods assembled abroad
    • Importers deduct value of U.S. goods from total Customs value
special provisions cont dual reporting of codes
Special Provisions (cont.) Dual Reporting of Codes

Report 10-digit statistical reporting number

  • Chapter 1-97
  • Unit of Quantity

Followed by special provision

  • Chapter 98
special provisions cont dual reporting of codes1
Special Provisions (cont.) Dual Reporting of Codes

9817.85.01

  • Prototypes for development, testing, evaluation
  • Free

8422.11.0000

  • Dishwasher, household
  • 2.4%

8422.19.0000

  • Dishwasher, other
  • Free
special provisions cont2
Special Provisions (cont.)
  • Chapter 99
    • Quotas
    • Additional duties
    • Temporary reductions
special provisions cont dual reporting of codes2
Special Provisions (cont.) Dual Reporting of Codes
  • Footnote 189 - See headings 9902.01.19, 9902.02.12, 9902.12.54, etc.
  • Reduced or duty free rates
  • 9902.01.19 Vinclozolin
  • Report 9902.01.19 - 2934.99.1200
rate provision rp codes
Rate Provision (RP) codes
  • RP codes indicate free or dutiable status
  • Used in conjunction with goods imported using Ch. 98 or 99 code
  • RP code can relate back to Ch. 98 or 99
  • Assigned by FTD
rate provisions cont
Rate Provisions (cont.)
  • Examples of RP codes:
    • RP 17 = Free as articles imported for the handicapped. Imported under HTS subheadings 9817.00.92, 9817.00.94 & 9817.00.96
    • RP 69 = Dutiable at rate prescribed in Rate of Duty columns of HTS Ch. 99. Duty reported
    • Full list available on our website
repairs imports
Repairs – Imports
  • Importing repaired item
    • Report Ch. 98 number and value of repair
      • If under warranty – non-statistical
      • If Non-warranty – statistical
        • Also report Ch. 1-97 HS in order to determine duty
  • Importing item for repair
    • Temporary imports
internet references
Internet References
  • FTD
    • http://www.census.gov/trade
  • Guide to Foreign Trade Statistics
    • http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/guide/index.html
internet references cont
Internet References (cont.)
  • Schedule B
    • http://www.census.gov/scheduleb
  • HTSUSA
    • http://www.usitc.gov/tata/hts/bychapter/index.htm
internet references cont1
Internet References (cont.)
  • CSC
    • http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/reference/codes/csc.html
  • RP
    • http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/reference/codes/rp.html
processing and editing

Processing and Editing

April 23, 2009

Rachelle J. Reeder

Methods Research and Quality Assurance

Rachelle.J.Reeder@census.gov

introduction
Introduction
  • The Foreign Trade Division processes over 5 million import and export transactions a month.
  • Publish the official merchandise trade statistics on a monthly basis.
  • Ensure that published statistics are accurate.
  • Published data may appear different than what can be seen on the electronic systems.
topics
Topics
  • Sources of Data
  • Processing
  • Data Categories
  • Differences
    • Differences between the ACE Portal and Published Statistics.
sources of import data
Sources of Import Data
  • Imports
  • The Automated Commercial System (ACS)
  • E214 Program
  • Automated Foreign Trade Zone Reporting Program (AFTZRP)
  • Paper Documents
  • Canadian Gas and Electricity
  • Estimates
sources of import data1
Sources of Import Data
  • Percent of Number of
  • Source Value Records
    • ACS 88 3,091K
    • E214 7 38K
    • AFTZRP 1 3K
    • Canada 2 .05K
    • Paper Documents 1 6K
    • CF-7501 and CF-214
    • Estimates 1 .2K
    • Totals 3.1 million
    • February 2009 data
sources of export data
Sources of Export Data
  • Exports
  • Automated Export System (AES)
  • Canadian Data Exchange
  • Estimates
sources of export data1
Sources of Export Data
  • Source Percent of Number of
  • Value Records
    • AES 80 1,403K
    • Canada 18 669K
    • Estimates 2 22K
    • Paper 0 .04K
    • Totals 2.1 million
    • February 2009 data
sources of data
Sources of Data
  • Editing at point of collection
  • Data are edited at point of collection
  • Alerts the filer of any discrepancies
  • Ensures best quality data
topics1
Topics
  • Sources of Data
  • Processing
  • Data Categories
  • Difference
processing
Processing
  • Overview
  • Prepare for editing
  • Edit
  • Resolve errors
  • Categorize and aggregate the data
prepare records for editing
Prepare Records for Editing
  • Combine Sources
  • Reformat data to uniform structure
  • Identify Non-statistical transactions
  • Low value records
prepare records for editing1
Prepare Records for Editing
  • Statistical time periods
  • Imports - Release date
  • Exports - Clearance date
  • Statistical month
  • Carryover
prepare records for editing2
Prepare Records for Editing
  • Preliminary Alterations
  • Recode commodities as necessary
  • Convert Schedule B from HTSUSA (exports only)
  • Convert quantities
prepare records for editing3
Prepare Records for Editing
  • Apply Corrections to Data
  • Customs corrections
  • Filer corrections
editing
Editing
  • Overview
  • Code Validations
  • Relationship Edits
  • Ratio Edits
  • Range Edits
editing1
Editing
  • Code Validations
  • We validate codes with lookup tables that are updated monthly.
    • Harmonized System commodity
    • Country of origin
    • Foreign port
    • U.S. port
    • Special Program Indicators (imports)
editing2
Editing
  • Relationship Edits
  • Commodity-specific relationship edits
  • Example: import bananas from Greenland
  • Mode of Transportation and Port of Unlading relationship
editing3
Editing
  • Ratio Edits
  • Verify numeric data by computing ratios
  • Check ratios against commodity-specific ranges
  • Several types of ratio edits
    • Quantity to value
    • Quantity to shipping weight/value to shipping weight
    • First quantity to second quantity for shipments requiring two quantities
editing4
Editing
  • Ratio Edits
  • Unit price example - Fireworks
    • We edit the quantity using unit price parameters of 0.663966/kg and $30.165/kg
    • We expect a $40,000 shipment of fireworks from China to have a quantity between 1,326 kg and 60,244 kg
editing5
Editing
  • Range Edits
  • Range Edits
    • Shipping weight exceeds what the mode of transportation can carry
  • Commodity-Specific Range Edits
    • Focus on each individual commodity
    • Example: 20 kilograms of diamonds unlikely
editing6
Editing
  • Commodity Specific Parameters
  • 2.7 million parameters
  • Files containing editing parameters by commodity
  • Flexible – can easily make necessary changes to parameters
editing7
Editing
  • Error resolution
  • Cannot review every erroneous record
  • Analysts review records that have the most impact
  • Edit programs impute the other records
editing8
Editing
  • Estimation
  • Estimate a new quantity or shipping weight from a factor and value or previously edited field
  • Unit price example
  • 1,000 kg of fireworks valued at $40,000 would reject our edit. Using an imputation factor of $4.51/kg, the edit program would change quantity to 8,853 kg.
editing9
Editing
  • Analyst review
  • Contact the filer
  • Ensure correct classification
  • Bypass the edits
editing10
Editing
  • Analyst Review
  • Review data by grouping individual records
  • Aggregate by commodity to determine if total values and quantities are reasonable
  • Utilize control files
  • Compare measures to previous months – look for missing or misreported data and identify processing problems
topics2
Topics
  • Sources of Data
  • Processing
  • Data Categories
  • Difference
    • Differences between the ACE Portal and the Published Statistics.
import data categories
Import Data Categories
  • General Imports
    • Measures the arrival of goods into the United States.
    • Consumption Entry and Admission to Warehouse/FTZ
  • Imports for Consumption
    • Measures the merchandise that have cleared Customs.
    • Consumption Entry and Warehouse/FTZ Withdrawal
import data categories1
Import Data Categories

Usually

Imports for Consumption <= General Imports

Remember:

Consumption = Consumption+withdrawals

General = Consumption+admissions

why could consumption be greater than general imports
Why could Consumption be greater than General Imports?

Goods processed in a FTZ

Example: Petroleum entered in FTZ

  • General import stats would show Ch 27 when goods admitted to FTZ
  • Petroleum is processed in the zone, creating byproducts classified in Ch 25
  • Therefore imports for consumption are based on what EXITS the zone (Ch 25)
why could consumption be greater than general imports1
Why could Consumption be greater than General Imports?

Petroleum processed in a FTZ could result in:

Chapter 27

General import stats > Consumption stats

Chapter 25

General Import stats < Consumption stats

export data categories
Export Data Categories
  • Domestic
    • Merchandise grown, produced or manufactured in the U.S.
    • Foreign merchandise changed in the U.S.
  • Foreign (re-export)
    • Foreign merchandise, entered for consumption or into a warehouse or FTZ, that is unchanged at the time of export.
data categories
Data Categories
  • Noncontiguous trade
    • PR and VI trade with U.S. are Non-contiguous exports (separate data product)
topics3
Topics
  • Sources of Data
  • Processing
  • Data Categories
  • Differences
    • Differences between the ACE Portal and Published Statistics.
ace portal
ACE Portal
  • Several sources of data are used in Census publications.
  • Data users will not see all the data, such as statistics on paper, and low value estimates.
ace portal1
ACE Portal
  • Census Categorizes data by Entry Types
      • General Imports
      • Consumption Imports
  • The Ace Portal will contain all entry types
      • Double counting trade into and out of warehouses and Foreign Trade Zones
ace portal2
ACE Portal
  • Differences in the data
      • Editing and imputing to the data occur after the data are extracted from the source
      • Non-statistical data are not published
      • Multi-commodity line reporting
ace portal3
ACE Portal
  • Time periods
      • Late filings are published in a later statistical month, and then corrected in the yearly revisions.
      • Early filings are held until the next processing month
data processing and editing
Data Processing and Editing
  • Questions!
  • Rachelle.J.Reeder@census.gov
  • (301)763-6922
slide83

The

United States – Canada Data Exchange

Wandra V. McKee

Process Coordination Staff

U.S. Census Bureau

April 23, 2009

Wandra.V.McKee@census.gov

what is the united states canada data exchange
What is the United States – Canada Data Exchange?

Agreement between the governments of the United States and Canada

based on a

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)

who is involved
Who is Involved?
  • UNITED STATES
  • U.S. Census Bureau (BOC)
  • U.S. Customs & Border Protection (CBP)
  • CANADA
  • Statistics Canada (STC)
  • Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA)
how does it work
How Does It Work?
  • U.S. Exports to Canada -
  • Canadian Imports from the U.S.
  • and
  • Canadian Exports to the U.S. -
  • U.S. Imports from Canada
why was it created
Why Was It Created?
  • ‣ Rise in Exportunder coverage
  • Other Benefits:
  • ‣ Decreaseoperating costs to process Export Declarations
  • ‣ Eliminate reporting burden of Exporters
  • ‣ Locationandlanguage of both countries
what are some differences in the data exchange
What Are Some Differences in the Data Exchange?
  • ° Port Codes
  • ° State of Export
  • ° Vendor vs. Exporter (USPPI)
how do we receive canadian import data
How Do We Receive Canadian Import Data?
  • > STC transmits files twice per month
  • >Adjustments are required
what kind of adjustments
What Kind of Adjustments?
  • Freight Charges
  • Currency Conversion
  • Exports of Foreign Goods to Canada
  • Exports of U.S. Goods to Canada from Third Party Countries
  • * Revisions
freight charges
Freight Charges
  • ▪Includedin U.S. Exports
  • ▪Excludedin Canadian Imports
  • ▪Added to compensate for difference in valuation
currency conversion
Currency Conversion
  • ~ U.S. Federal Reserve’s
  • monthly exchange rate
  • ~ STC converts to U.S. dollars;
  • transmits data to BOC
exports of foreign goods to canada
Exports of Foreign Goodsto Canada
  • • Transmitted from STC
  • • BOC includes these goods
  • in U.S. export statistics
exports of u s goods to canada from third party countries
Exports of U.S. Goods to Canada from Third Party Countries
  • • Transmitted from STC
  • • BOC excludes these goods from U.S. export statistics
revisions
Revisions
  • • Estimates for Late Arrivals
  • • Corrections from STC
  • • Corrections Made by BOC
estimates for late arrivals
Estimates for Late Arrivals
  • • STC sends with second transmittal
  • • Estimates replaced with actual values the following month in the
  • FT-900 press release only
corrections from stc
Corrections from STC
  • STC sends with second transmittal
  • Corrections from first transmittal
corrections made by boc
Corrections Made By BOC
  • • Commodity analysts verify corrections with their STC counterparts
  • • Corrections made prior to publication, when possible
questions
??? Questions ???
  • Wandra V. McKee
  • Wandra.V.McKee@census.gov
u s census bureau foreign trade division

U.S. Census BureauForeign Trade Division

Trade with Partner Countries

Emmanuel Omoruyi

April 23, 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

trade with partner countries
Trade with Partner Countries
  • Definition of Partner Country
  • Special Cases
  • Reasons for Trade Discrepancies
  • Resolving Trade Discrepancies
  • Work in Progress with Partner countries
trade with partner countries1
Trade with Partner Countries
  • Definition of Partner Country
  • Exports - Country of Ultimate Destination
  • as known at the time of exportation
trade with partner countries2
Trade with Partner Countries
  • Definition of Partner Country
  • What is considered an export ?
  • Domestically produced merchandise
  • sold to a foreign country
  • Foreign goods resold to a foreign country
  • Parts exported for further processing or incorporation into a more advanced product
  • Capital equipment shipped to a foreign assembly or manufacturing location
  • Charitable goods
trade with partner countries3
Trade with Partner Countries
  • Definition of Partner Country
  • Imports – Country of Origin
  • Grown, mined, produced or manufactured
  • “Substantially transformed”
  • U.S. Customs define country of origin based on legal, trade agreement and policy
trade with partner countries4
Trade with Partner Countries
  • Definition of Partner Country
  • Imports- Country of Origin
  • China exports domestic product to India
  • India incorporates product but not “substantially transformed” under U.S. rules and export the product to the U.S.
  • China is still country of origin
trade with partner countries6
Trade with Partner Countries
  • Definition of Partner Country
  • Imports – Country of Origin
  • United Kingdom exports U.S. manufactured aircraft and cars to Germany, which sell to Argentina
  • United Kingdom: exports to Germany
  • Germany: Imports from U.S.
  • Argentina: Imports from U.S
trade with partner countries8
Trade with Partner Countries
  • Special Cases
  • Re-imports:
  • Reported under HS 9801- imports from country of shipment
  • Country of origin undetermined
  • International Standard Organization (ISO) coding errors
trade with partner countries9
Trade with Partner Countries
  • Special Cases
  • In-Transit Goods
  • U.N. Guidelines– exclude goods moving under Customs bond from statistics
  • Shipper may choose to enter and re-export
  • - EX: Goods transiting U.S. Between Canada and Mexico
  • Imports from Canada
  • Re-export to Mexico
trade with partner countries10
Trade with Partner Countries
  • Reasons for Trade Discrepancies
  • Valuation of goods
  • Definition of goods Traded
  • Trade through a third Country
  • Geographic Coverage
  • Low Value
  • Classification issues
  • Undercounting or under reporting
trade with partner countries11
Trade with Partner Countries
  • Reasons for Trade Discrepancies
  • The valuation of goods
    • U.S. value imports on C.I.F basis and exports on F.A.S basis. Other countries often value trade differently.
  • Definition of goods
    • The U.S. does not count containers as goods traded with partner’s countries
trade with partner countries12
Trade with Partner Countries
  • Reasons for Trade Discrepancies
  • Third country
    • Foreign countries often don’t know final destination of their exports.
  • Geographic coverage
    • Trading partners’ often treat Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands trade as trade with separate countries.
trade with partner countries13
Trade with Partner Countries
  • Reasons for Trade Discrepancies
  • Low Value
  • –$2000 for imports, $2500 for exports
  • Classification issues
    • True commodity classification
  • Undercounting or under reporting
    • Import trade is generally more accurate than export.
    • Export trade may be understated
trade with partner countries14
Trade with Partner Countries
  • Resolving Trade Discrepancies
  • Reconciliation is done to resolve significant trade discrepancies between reported U.S. trade values and a partner’s trade values.
  • We try to resolve the trade difference by assigning reasons and dollar amounts for all previous sources.
trade with partner countries15
Trade with Partner Countries
  • Resolving Trade Discrepancies
  • U.S. Published Imports (Total Imports)
  • Re-imports (-)
  • Imports from 3rd countries (-)
  • Shipping Containers (-)
  • Geographical coverage (PR & VI) (-)
  • Low Value (-)
  • Re-exports (+)
  • Residuals
  • Partner Published Exports (Total Exports)
  • .
trade with partner countries16
Trade with Partner Countries
  • Current Reconciliation Work
  • China:
  • -Hong Kong re-exports; 3rd Country issue
  • -Processing Regimes; Valuation issue
  • -Ship Cranes-Harmonize System code (HS 842619);
  • commodity issue
  • Morocco:
  • -Special trade; trade agreement issue
  • -Export through Europe; 3rd country issue
  • .
trade with partner countries17
Trade with Partner Countries

Any questions ?

Emmanuel.O.Omoruyi@census.gov

methods research quality assurance branch
Methods Research & Quality Assurance Branch

Port and

Mode of Transportation Data

Andrew Chang

April 23, 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

objectives
Objectives
  • District/Port Data Definitions.
  • Mode of Transportation (MOT).
  • Data Quality Issues.
what is a port code
What is a Port Code?
  • A 4 digit number consisting of the customs District and Port.
  • 1301

District

Port

port data definitions
Port Data Definitions

Port of Exportation

  • Vessel or Air – Customs port where merchandise is loaded on the conveyance that takes it out of the country.
    • Vessel could be containerized or non containerized.
  • Overland – Customs port where merchandise crosses the U.S. border into foreign territory.
port data definitions cont
Port Data Definitions Cont.

Port of Entry

  • Import Port of Entry
    • The port in which merchandise clears Customs for entry into consumption, bonded warehouses, or Foreign Trade Zones.
  • Import Port of Unlading
    • The port where merchandise is unloaded from the importing vessel or aircraft.
mode of transportation mot
Mode of Transportation (MOT)
  • Transportation Statistics Categories
      • Vessel, Air, and Other Methods.
      • Based on the MOT by which the merchandise arrives in or departs from the United States.
      • We obtain this information from the documentation the filers provide.
      • Other methods are available for certain publications (i.e. rail vs. truck or container vs. non container for vessel) .
mode of transportation cont
Mode of TransportationCont.
  • Entering/Departing through Canada & Mexico.
  • Recorded under the MOT by which they enter or depart the U.S. regardless of the transportation mode for the rest of their journey.
how does a truck get here from china
How does a truck get here from China?
  • MOT is identified by the method of conveyance that is used when the shipment crosses the border into the U.S.
  • Example: China  Canada on vessel, then Canada  U.S. on truck.
  • Over 5% of goods arriving over land originate in countries other than Canada and Mexico.
reporting of district port data
Reporting of District/Port Data
  • Filing
      • Imports – data captured at time of entry summary.
      • Exports – port where shipment is expected to ship from.
quality issues related to filing
Quality Issues Related to Filing.
  • Knowledge of Filer.
  • Airports and Seaports.
  • Correcting the obsolete/incorrect codes.
  • Unknown container status is coded as non-container.
quality issues relating to mail pipeline and other unknowns
Quality Issues relating to Mail, Pipeline and Other Unknowns

U.S. Mail

  • For exports via U.S. Mail, filers can report any code, but the Census Bureau changes the code to ‘8000’ .
  • The Census Bureau corrects some export shipments that are incorrectly reported as mail (e.g. fire trucks) .
mail pipeline and other unknowns
Mail, Pipeline and Other Unknowns

Pipeline

  • For shipments by pipeline, exporters file with the port having jurisdiction for the pipeline.
user fee ports and nearby ports
User-Fee Ports and Nearby Ports
  • Many small package couriers have their own port codes
  • Recoding of courier port codes
canadian data exchange
Canadian Data Exchange
  • Quality Issue
    • We take Canada’s imports for our exports which can lead to inaccurate port code information
    • Canada does not collect containerized vessel shipment information for their imports
    • Thus for Canadian shipments, all vessel shipments have unspecified as the container status
questions1
Questions?

Andrew Chang

Andrew.Chang@census.gov

(301) 763-1022

u s census bureau foreign trade division1

U.S. Census BureauForeign Trade Division

Quality Issues

Robin Gibson

April 23, 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

topics covered
Topics Covered
  • Uses of Foreign Trade Statistics
  • Quality Issues
  • Responses to Quality Issues
uses of foreign trade statistics
Uses of Foreign Trade Statistics
  • Accurate trade data are necessary for economic, commercial, and policy purposes.
  • Used by
    • Government
    • Non-Government
government uses
Government Uses
  • Develop the merchandise trade figures
      • To appraise and analyze major movements and trends in international trade
      • To evaluate and plan various programs
      • To measure impact of tariff and trade concessions
  • Statistical base to implement and analyze operations under various international agreements
      • E.g. NAFTA
government uses cont
Government Uses (cont.)
  • Meet legal and regulatory requirements

Imports

      • Correctly assess import duties
      • Administer embargoes and quotas
      • Restrict counterfeit items entering the country
      • Implement control policies

Exports

Effectively administer control and regulatory policies for

      • national security or foreign policy reasons
      • implement export quotas or embargo programs
      • administer short supply programs
non government uses
Non-Government Uses
  • Users in industry, finance, research, and transportation
      • Appraise the general trade situation and outlook
      • Perform share-of-the-market analyses and market penetration studies
      • Aid in product and market development
      • Measure the impact of competition
      • Determine marketing policies
importance of data quality
Importance of Data Quality
  • Leading economic indicator
  • Wide and varied group of uses
  • Committed to producing quality data
  • To use information wisely and appropriately need to understand limitations.
quality issues
Quality Issues
  • Reporting Errors
  • Documentation
  • Low Value
  • Carryover
  • Revisions
reporting errors
Reporting Errors
  • Mistakes or omissions made by importers, exporters, or their agents when reporting import or export shipments
  • Common Data Elements
  • quantity or shipping weight
  • state of origin designation
  • commodity code
  • charges
reporting errors1
Reporting Errors
  • Misclassification of Commodity Codes
  • Import information subject to greater scrutiny so more common with exports and duty free imports
  • Results in inaccuracies for commodity level detailed data
reporting errors2
Reporting Errors
  • Reasons for Misclassification
    • Typos
    • Duty avoidance
    • Not understanding the classification system

*Census Bureau utilizes edits to detect misreporting and send error messages to the filers*

reporting errors3
Reporting Errors
  • Charges
    • Invoiced freight, insurance, or other charges
      • If included in the invoice price must be included in the Customs Value
      • If an importer does not know the exact value of all charges, must be estimated
      • The filer must have documentation to exclude an item from Custom Value
    • Result is actual value may be overstated
quality issues1
Quality Issues
  • Reporting Errors
  • Documentation
  • Low Value
  • Carryover
  • Revisions
documentation
Documentation
  • Documentation issues can arise when shipments
    • move through an intermediary country
    • move through Foreign Trade Zones (FTZs)
    • consist of rail cars and/or locomotives
documentation1
Documentation
  • Intermediary Country
  • Canada
    • Exports to Canada; no documentation required
    • Exports where Canada is not the ultimate destination country; documentation is required
  • Transiting Goods
    • When under bond, excluded from trade statistics
    • Sometimes entered into the US using import entry summary and an export declaration is filed
documentation2
Documentation
  • Foreign Trade Zones
  • Goods enter a FTZ
    • A customs form 214 is filled out
  • Goods withdrawn from a FTZ can be
    • Imports
    • Exports
    • In-bond
slide150

Documentation

Foreign Trade Zone Withdrawals

FTZ

Foreign

Country

FTZ

U.S. Customs

Territory

Export documentation should be

filled out

Shipment in-bond,

no duties paid

Import documentation must be filled out, duties paid

documentation3
Documentation
  • Imports of Rail Cars
  • By law importers of rail cars and locomotives are not required to report their shipments, when duty free
  • Statistics Canada (STC)
    • established a voluntary survey
    • included as a revision to Canada’s export trade data since late 2004
quality issues2
Quality Issues
  • Reporting Errors
  • Documentation
  • Low Value
  • Carryover
  • Revisions
what is low value
What is Low Value?
  • Value-based exemptions
    • If value is under the exemption level
      • Import shipments – do not have to report full details
      • Export transactions – do not have to report
    • Initially enacted in the early 1960s
    • Introduced to relieve increasing filer burden
    • Updated several times since
low value estimation
Low Value Estimation
  • Amount of detailed records collected from low valued shipments declined
  • Value of these shipments is estimated
  • Factors based on ratios of low valued shipments to individual country total for past periods
  • Monthly trade total for each country multiplied by the factor, to produce a estimate of low value as a percentage of total value
  • Factors received last major update in 1989
update to low value estimation
Update to Low Value Estimation
  • Currently working on an update to the low value estimation methodology
  • Anticipate implementing for imports and exports in 2010.
quality issues3
Quality Issues
  • Reporting Errors
  • Documentation
  • Low Value
  • Carryover
  • Revisions
carryover
Carryover
  • Trade records received and/or processed too late for inclusion with records in the correct transaction month
  • Current carryover rate (2008 avg. of total value)
    • 0.36% exports
    • 0.81% imports
carryover1
Carryover
  • Each month in the FT900, the total import, export, trade balance and “end-use” totals for the prior month are adjusted for carryover
      • SITC (Standard International Trade Classification) and country detail reports not revised
  • Annual revision takes place each June
      • SITC and country detail reports are revised
quality issues4
Quality Issues
  • Reporting Errors
  • Documentation
  • Low Value
  • Carryover
  • Revisions
revisions1
Revisions
  • Every June of the current year, FTD publishes an annual revision of the previous year
    • Carryover correction
    • Corrections resulting from data investigations
    • Customs and Canadian revisions
response to quality issues
Response to Quality Issues
  • What we’re doing to address these concerns.
automated reporting
Automated Reporting
  • Effective July 2, 2008 all exports must be filed through the Automated Export System (AES)
  • Imports can be electronically filed through the Automated Broker Interface (ABI), and soon through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE)
benefits of automated reporting
Benefits of Automated Reporting
  • Receive and compile data quickly
  • Reduce Error
    • Exports (as of a 2001 study)
      • 57% of paper SEDs contain errors
      • 10% of AES records contain errors
    • Imports (as of a 2001 study)
      • 37% of Customs Entry Forms 7501 contain errors
      • 8% of ABI records contain errors
benefits of automated reporting1
Benefits of Automated Reporting
    • Online, instant validation checks
    • Reduction in carryover
  • Exports
    • AES Compliance Review Program
    • Less export paper documents are lost
conclusion
Conclusion
  • FTD continues to monitor the quality of data during collection, processing, and publication.
  • We are constantly exploring ways to further improve the quality of international trade data.
questions2
Questions ?
  • roberta.gibson@census.gov
  • (301) 763-4690
  • Methods Research and Quality Assurance Branch
  • (301) 763-3080
u s census bureau foreign trade division2

U.S. Census BureauForeign Trade Division

Profile of U.S. Exporting Companies 2006-2007

Ben Shelak

April 23, 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

profile of u s exporters 2006 2007
Profile of U.S. Exporters2006 – 2007

Released April 9, 2009

Available on FTD Website back to 1996

http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/aip/index.html#profile

profile of u s exporters 2006 20071
Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

U.S. Census Bureau News

U.S. Department of Commerce • Washington, D.C. 20230

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

8:30 A.M. EST FRIDAY, APRIL 9, 2009

For information contact: (301) 763-3629 CB-xx-xx

Jeff McHugh or Benjamin Shelak

A Profile of U.S. Exporting Companies, 2006 - 2007

profile of u s exporters 2006 20072
Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

Partially $ponsored by the

International Trade Administration (ITA)

Produced by the Special Projects Branch

Produced by linking export records to the Census Business Register, which contains employment, company types, & company locations

slide171

Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

Composition of Total Export Value: 2007

  • Unidentified = Exports that could not be matched to Business Register
  • Identified = Exports that could be matched to the Business Register (Known export value)
  • Other = Low value est., revisions, Gov’t shipments
profile of u s exporters 2006 20073
Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007
  • The Profile can answer questions such as:
    • Value that can be attributed to large manufacturers in 2007
    • Canada’s known export value that can be attributed to companies with 1 to 19 employees
    • Number of companies that exported from Maryland in 2007 and how much known value was exported
profile of u s exporters 2006 20074
Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007
  • Profile Provides Data Users:
    • Exporting community’s employment sizes, types of companies, & major foreign markets
    • Top 25 U.S. export countries and multiple country groupings
    • Export value and number of exporters for each state (OM State)
    • Number of employees of identified exporting companies
profile of u s exporters 2006 20075
Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

Profile Characteristics - I

  • Company type – NAICS based

(North American Industry Classification System)

Manufacturers

Wholesalers

Other

Unclassified

profile of u s exporters 2006 20076
Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

Profile Characteristics - II

  • Company size - # of employees

Small (0-99 employees)

Medium (100-499 employees)

Large (500 or more employees)

slide176

Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

2007 Known Export Value

By Company Type

slide177

Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

2007 Top 10 Export Countries

Known Export Value(in billions)

profile of u s exporters 2006 20077
Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007
  • 2007
  • Export Concentration

% of Known Export Value

slide179

Number of Exporters (266,457)

Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

Employee Sizes:

Known Export Value ($1,031 bil.)

profile of u s exporters 2006 20078
Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

How is our data valuable to data users?

Example:

A data user wants to know how many Large sized companies (500+ Employees) export to OPEC countries and how much value is exported.

profile of u s exporters 2006 20079
Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007

Special requests for data:

We may be able to provide special tabulations that are not included in the Profile.

Example:

A data user wanted to know the number of U.S. companies that exported to Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) countries in a given year.

Table 5a of the Profile did not provide export data on these CAFTA countries, so we compiled the data for the data user.

profile of u s importers
Profile of U.S. Importers
  • Why? - To meet a growing demand for statistics on U.S. importers
  • Produced by linking import records to the Census Business Register, which contains employment, company types, & company locations
profile of u s exporters 2006 200710
Profile of U.S. Exporters 2006 – 2007
  • The EDB Team
  • Jeffrey McHugh
  • Ben Shelak
  • (301)763-3629
u s census bureau foreign trade division3

U.S. Census BureauForeign Trade Division

Origin of Movement Export State

Origin State, ZIP Code & Sub-state Data

John Chantis

April 23, 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

slide186
Background:
  • Origin of Movement (OM) State – Based on

Origin State “State OM”

  • Origin of Movement (OM) State – Based on

ZIP Code “ZIP Code OM”

slide187
Background:
  • For more information visit http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/statistics/state/index.html
  • Data Dissemination Branch 301-763-2311
slide188
Based on Origin State:
  • Available 1987-Present
  • Based on the state in which the goods begin their journey to the port of export
  • Does not represent the production origin of U.S. export merchandise
slide189
Origin State examples:
  • Goods warehoused in GA  transported to a FL port to be shipped to a foreign country. OM state is……GA
  • Auto parts produced from many states are consolidated in TX to be exported to Mexico. OM state is……TX.
slide190
Origin of Movement (OM) State Series – Based on Origin State
  • Available in our monthly FT900 Press Release, supplement, exhibit 2
  • Web address:

http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/Press-Release/current_press_release/exh2s.pdf

  • More detailed information
slide191
Based on ZIP Code:
  • Available January 2006 - Present
  • The ZIP Code of the USPPI, the party in the US that receives the primary benefit

from the shipment

  • Does not necessarily represent the location of the USPPI
slide192
ZIP Code State examples:
  • Goods warehoused in GA  transported to a FL port to be shipped to a foreign country. ZIP state is ...GA.
  • Auto parts produced from many states are consolidated in TX to be exported to Mexico. ZIP state is……TX.
slide193
ZIP Code based report:
  • Similar to FT-900 supplement, exhibit 2 press release; available on our website:

http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/statistics/state/zip/index.html

slide194
Regulations – address of the USPPI
  • Effective October 2008, the USPPI should report the address from which the goods begin the journey to the port of export.
  • Same for state code and ZIP Code.
om state vs zip based state in millions of dollars
OM State vs. ZIP Based State(in millions of dollars)

2008

Q1 = -14.96 Median = -3.47 Q3 = 6.97

#States within (-10%, 10%) = 25

slide196
Other available state data products:
  • FTD - Quarterly and Annual OM & ZIP state data is available for download.
  • Please call our Current Systems Programming Branch on 301-763-2214.
  • Available in three options….

Option 1: State by 3-Digit NAICS Commodity by Country (Total, Air and Vessel).

Option 2: Region by 4-Digit SITC, District/Port of Exit, & Country (Total, Air & Vessel).

Option 3: State by District/Port of Exit, & Country (Total, Air & Vessel)- No Commodity Detail

slide197
Other products …
  • Manufacturing and Construction Division (MCD) - Gives exports by state and 3 digit NAICS. Available online at http://www.census.gov/mcd/exports/.
slide198
Sub-State Data
  • Data historically based on Metropolitan Area (MA).
  • The term “Core Based Statistical Area” (CBSA) is a collective term, defined by Office of Management & Budget (OMB), for metro and micro areas.
  • New definitions for CBSA’s were announced by OMB on June 2003.
slide199
Sub-State Data
  • CBSA’s based on ZIP Code of US Principal Party in Interest (USPPI).
  • CBSA’s now cover areas of 10 to 50 thousand population, which were not covered by MA’s.
  • CBSA codes increase coverage to about 93% of the population vs 80% with MA’s.
slide200
Sub-State Data
  • In preparation for reintroducing ZIP Code based tables, in 2006 completed a quality review of ZIP Codes based on 2005 data
  • Historically, under contract, we have produced data for ITA
  • To date we provided 3-digit ZIP Code & CBSA Metro totals for 2005 - 2007 Export data to ITA http://ita.doc.gov/td/industry/otea/metro/
slide201
Next Steps…
  • Have started our analysis to provide data to ITA based on 2008 trade.
  • The current contract calls for CBSA by 3-digit NAICS, CBSA by Destination, 3-digit NAICS by CBSA, and other tables of trade totals.
  • 2008 CBSA data will be available mid to late 2009.
slide202

For more information:

John.Chantis@Census.gov

Special Projects Branch

Foreign Trade Division

(301) 763-3251

www.census.gov/foreign-trade/www/