analisis strategi dan pilihan n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
ANALISIS STRATEGI DAN PILIHAN PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
ANALISIS STRATEGI DAN PILIHAN

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 62

ANALISIS STRATEGI DAN PILIHAN - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 268 Views
  • Uploaded on

ANALISIS STRATEGI DAN PILIHAN. BAB 6. OBJEKTIF BAB. Selepas mengikuti bab ini , anda seharusnya boleh : Menerangkan tiga tingkat rangka kerja untuk memilih alternatif-alternatif strategi yang sesuai .

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'ANALISIS STRATEGI DAN PILIHAN' - tawana


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
objektif bab
OBJEKTIF BAB
  • Selepasmengikuti bab ini, andaseharusnyaboleh:
    • Menerangkantigatingkatrangkakerjauntukmemilihalternatif-alternatifstrategi yang sesuai.
    • MenerangkanbagaimanauntukmembangunkanMatriksTOWS, Matriks SPACE, Matriks BCG, Matriks IE danMatriksQSPM.
    • Mengenalpastihal-halgelagat, politik, etika, dantanggungjawabsosialdalamanalisisstrategidanpilihan.
    • Mengetahuiperananintuisidalamanalisisstrategikdanpilihan.
    • Mengetahuiperananbudayaorganisasidalamanalisisstrategikdanpilihan.
    • MengetahuiperananAhliLembagaPengarahdalammemilihalternatif-alternatifstrategi.
pengenalan
PENGENALAN
  • Analisisstrategidanpilihanmelibatkanpembuatankeputusanyang subjektifberdasarkanmaklumat yang objektif.
analisis strategi dan pilihan1
ANALISIS STRATEGI DAN PILIHAN
  • Proses Penjanaan dan Pemilihan Strategi
    • Proses-prosespenjanaandanpemilihanstrategimelibatkanpengenalpastiandanpenilaianstrategi-strategialternatif.
    • Strategi-strategialternatif yang dicadangkan perlulah disenarai dan digredkan seperti berikut:
      • 1 = tidakbolehdilaksanakan,
      • 2 = tidakmungkinbolehdilaksanakan,
      • 3 = mungkinbolehdilaksanakandan
      • 4 = bolehdilaksanakan.
    • Prosesinibolehmemberikeputusankepadapemilihanstrategi yang terbaik.
rangka kerja penggubalan strategi yang komprehensif
RANGKA KERJA PENGGUBALAN STRATEGI YANG KOMPREHENSIF
  • Teknikpenggubalanstrategibolehdiintegrasikankepadatigaperingkat
    • TINGKAT INPUT
    • TINGKAT PEMADANAN
    • TINGKAT PEMBUATAN KEPUTUSAN
  • RangkakerjapembuatankeputusanRujukRajah 6.1 mukasurat 97
tingkat input
TINGKAT INPUT
  • Prosedur-proseduruntukmenggunakanMatriks EFE, MatriksKompetitif dan Matriks IFE telah dibincangkan dalam bab sebelumnya.
tingkat pemadanan
TINGKAT PEMADANAN
  • Di dalamtingkatpemadanan,
    • MatriksTOWS,
    • MatriksSPACE,
    • MatriksBCG, MatriksIE dan
    • MatriksGrand Strategy
matriks tows
Matriks TOWS
  • Matriks TOWS menunjukkanbagaimanagabunganfaktorluaran (peluangdanancaman) denganfaktordalamansyarikat (kekuatandankelemahan) bolehmewujudkanstrategi-strategi yang baru.
  • Iabolehmembantupengurusdalammembangunkanempatjenisstrategiiaitu
    • strategi SO,
    • strategi WO,
    • strategi ST dan
    • strategi WT.
matriks tows1
Matriks TOWS
  • Strategi SO menggunakanfaktor-faktor yang terdapatdalamkekuatan dalaman syarikat untuk merebut peluang faktor-faktor luaran.
  • Contohnya, pelaksanaan AFTA 2003 boleh memberi peluangkepadasyarikat-syarikatuntukmeluaskanpasarannyakeluarnegara. Apabilasesebuahsyarikatmempunyaikekuatandarisegikewangansyarikat yang kukuh, makastrategipenembusanpasaran boleh diaplikasikan oleh syarikat tersebut.
matriks tows2
Matriks TOWS
  • Strategi WO menggunakanpeluang-peluangluaran yang adauntuk mengatasi kelemahan dalaman syarikat.
  • Contohnya, Internet bolehmemberipeluangkepadasyarikatmeluaskanpromosidanpasarannyasertasecaratidaklangsungmembolehkansyarikatdikenalidiseluruhdunia (peluangluaran). Apabilasesebuahorganisasimempunyaikelemahandarisegipromosiprodukdanperkhidmatannya (kelemahandalaman), maka strategi pemasaran menerusi penggunaan internet boleh dilaksanakanolehsyarikat.
matriks tows3
Matriks TOWS
  • Strategi ST, firma bolehlahmenggunakankekuatandalamansyarikatuntukmengelakataumeminimumkanancamanfaktorluaran.
  • Contohnya, sekiranyasesebuahorganisasimempunyaikekuatandarisegi modal dansumbermanusia (kekuatandalaman) danpesaing-pesaingdalamindustriadalahkompetitif(ancaman luaran), maka organisasi tersebut bolehlah melakukan strategi pakatan strategik dengan pesaingnya.
matriks tows4
Matriks TOWS
  • Strategi WT adalah lebih kepada strategi defensif yang mana firma perlumeminimumkankelemahandanmengelakkanancamanolehfaktor-faktorluaran.
  • Contohnya, apabilasesebuahorganisasimempunyaikapasitipengeluaran yang berlebihan (kelemahandalaman) dantahapindustriorganisasitersebutsedangmengalamikejatuhandarisegijualandankeuntungan (ancamanluaran), makastrategikepelbagaiankonsentrikbolehlahdiaplikasikanolehorganisasitersebut.
matriks tows5
Matriks TOWS
  • Lapanlangkah yang terlibatdalampenyediaanMatriksTOWS (Rujuk Rajah 6.2 ms 100)
    • Senaraikanpeluangluaransyarikat
    • Senaraikan ancaman luaran syarikat
    • Senaraikan kekuatan dalaman syarikat
    • Senaraikan kelemahan dalaman syarikat
    • Padankan kekuatan dalaman dengan peluang luaran dan rekodkanstrategi yang dicadangkandidalamkotakStrategi SO
matriks tows6
Matriks TOWS
  • Lapanlangkah yang terlibatdalampenyediaanMatriks TOWS
    • Padankan kelemahan dalaman dengan peluang luaran dan kemudianrekodkanstrategi yang dicadangkankedalamkotakStrategi WO
    • Padankankekuatandalamansyarikatdenganancamanluaran dan rekodkan cadangan strategi di dalam kotak StrategiST
    • Padankan kelemahan dalaman syarikat dengan ancaman luaran dan rekodkan cadangan strategi di dalam kotak StrategiWT.
slide17

SPACE Matrix

Strategic Position & Action Evaluation Matrix

  • Aggressive
  • Conservative
  • Defensive
  • Competitive
slide18

SPACE Matrix

Two Internal Dimensions

  • Financial Strength (FS)
  • Competitive Advantage (CA)
slide19

SPACE Matrix

Two External Dimensions

  • Environmental Stability (ES)
  • Industry Strength (IS)
space factors

Internal Strategic Position

External Strategic Position

Financial Strength (FS)

Return on investment

Leverage

Liquidity

Working capital

Cash flow

Inventory turnover

Earnings per share

Price earnings ratio

Environmental Stability (ES)

Technological changes

Rate of inflation

Demand variability

Price range of competing products

Barriers to entry

Competitive pressure

Price elasticity of demandEase of exit from market Risk involved in business

SPACE Factors
space factors1

Internal Strategic Position

External Strategic Position

Competitive Advantage (CA)

Market share

Product quality

Product life cycle

Customer loyalty

Competition’s capacity utilization

Technological know-how

Control over suppliers & distributors

Industry Strength (IS)

Growth potential

Profit potential

Financial stability

Technological know-how

Resource utilization

Ease of entry into market

Productivity, capacity utilization

SPACE Factors
steps to developing a space matrix
Steps to Developing a SPACE Matrix
  • Select a set of variables to define FS, CA, ES, and IS.
  • Assign a numerical value:
    • From +1 to +6 to each FS & IS dimension
    • From -1 to -6 to each ES & CA dimension
  • Compute an average score for each FS, CA, ES, and IS.
steps to developing a space matrix1
Steps to Developing a SPACE Matrix

4. Plot the average score on the appropriate axis.

5. Add the two scores on the x-axis and plot the point. Add the two scores on the y-axis and plot the point. Plot the intersection of the new xy point.

6. Draw a directional vector from the origin through the new intersection point.

slide25

Strategy-Formulation Analytical Framework

SWOT Matrix

SPACE Matrix

Stage 2:The Matching Stage

BCG Matrix

IE Matrix

Grand Strategy Matrix

slide26

BCG Matrix

Boston Consulting Group Matrix

  • Enhances multidivisional firm in formulating strategies
  • Autonomous divisions = business portfolio
  • Divisions may compete in different industries
  • Focus on market-share position & industry growth rate
slide27

BCG Matrix

Relative Market Share Position

  • Ratio of a division’s own market share in an industry to the market share held by the largest rival firm in that industry
slide29

BCG Matrix

Question Marks

  • Low relative market share, competes in high-growth industry
    • Cash needs are high
    • Case generation is low
  • Decision to strengthen (intensive strategies) or divest
slide30

BCG Matrix

Stars

  • High relative market share and high growth rate
    • Best long-run opportunities for growth & profitability
  • Substantial investment to maintain or strengthen dominant position
    • Integration strategies, intensive strategies, joint ventures
slide31

BCG Matrix

Cash Cows

  • High relative market share, competes in low-growth industry
    • Generate cash in excess of their needs
    • Milked for other purposes
  • Maintain strong position as long as possible
    • Product development, concentric diversification
    • If weakens –retrenchment or divestiture
slide32

BCG Matrix

Dogs

  • Low relative market share, competes in slow or no market growth
    • Weak internal & external position
  • Liquidation, divestiture, retrenchment
slide33

Strategy-Formulation Analytical Framework

SWOT Matrix

SPACE Matrix

Stage 2:The Matching Stage

BCGMatrix

IEMatrix

Grand Strategy Matrix

the internal external matrix
The Internal-External Matrix
  • Positions an organization’s various divisions in a nine-cell display
  • Similar to BCG Matrix except the IE Matrix:
    • Requires more information about the divisions
    • Strategic implications of each matrix are different
ie matrix
IE Matrix
  • Based on two key dimensions
    • The IFE total weighted scores on the x-axis
    • The EFE total weighted scores on the y-axis
  • Divided into three major regions
    • Grow and build – Cells I, II, or IV
    • Hold and maintain – Cells III, V, or VII
    • Harvest or divest – Cells VI, VIII, or IX
slide38

Strategy-Formulation Analytical Framework

SWOT Matrix

SPACE Matrix

Stage 2:The Matching Stage

BCG Matrix

IE Matrix

Grand Strategy Matrix

slide39

Grand Strategy Matrix

  • Tool for formulating alternative strategies
  • Based on two dimensions
    • Competitive position
    • Market growth
slide40

RAPID MARKET GROWTH

  • Quadrant II
  • Market development
  • Market penetration
  • Product development
  • Horizontal integration
  • Divestiture
  • Liquidation
  • Quadrant I
  • Market development
  • Market penetration
  • Product development
  • Forward integration
  • Backward integration
  • Horizontal integration
  • Concentric diversification

WEAK

COMPETITIVE

POSITION

STRONG

COMPETITIVE

POSITION

  • Quadrant III
  • Retrenchment
  • Concentric diversification
  • Horizontal diversification
  • Conglomerate diversification
  • Liquidation
  • Quadrant IV
  • Concentric diversification
  • Horizontal diversification
  • Conglomerate diversification
  • Joint ventures

SLOW MARKET GROWTH

slide41

Grand Strategy Matrix

Quadrant I

  • Excellent strategic position
  • Concentration on current markets/products
  • Take risks aggressively when necessary
slide42

Grand Strategy Matrix

Quadrant II

  • Evaluate present approach
  • How to improve competitiveness
  • Rapid market growth requires intensive strategy
slide43

Grand Strategy Matrix

Quadrant III

  • Compete in slow-growth industries
  • Weak competitive position
  • Drastic changes quickly
  • Cost & asset reduction (retrenchment)
slide44

Grand Strategy Matrix

Quadrant IV

  • Strong competitive position
  • Slow-growth industry
  • Diversification to more promising growth areas
slide45

Strategy-Formulation Analytical Framework

Quantitative StrategicPlanning Matrix(QSPM)

Stage 3:The Decision Stage

slide46

QSPM

Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix

  • Technique designed to determine the relative attractiveness of feasible alternative actions
slide47

Key External Factors

Economy

Political/Legal/Governmental

Social/Cultural/Demographic/Environmental

Technological

Competitive

Weight

Strategy 1

Strategy 2

Strategy 3

Key Internal Factors

Management

Marketing

Finance/Accounting

Production/Operations

Research and Development

Computer Information Systems

Strategic Alternatives

QSPM
steps to develop a qspm
Steps to Develop a QSPM
  • Make a list of the firm’s key external opportunities/threats and internal strengths/weaknesses in the left column.
  • Assign weights to each key external and internal factor.
  • Examine the Stage 2 (matching) matrices, and identify alternative strategies that the organization should consider implementing.
steps to develop a qspm1
Steps to Develop a QSPM
  • Determine the Attractiveness Scores.
  • Compare the Total Attractiveness Scores.
  • Compute the Sum Total Attractiveness Score.
slide50

QSPM

Limitations

  • Requires intuitive judgments & educated assumptions
  • Only as good as the prerequisite inputs
slide51

QSPM

Advantages

  • Sets of strategies considered simultaneously or sequentially
  • Integration of pertinent external & internal factors in the decision-making process
slide52

Cultural Aspects of Strategy Choice

Organization Culture

  • Successful strategies depend on the degree of consistency with the firm’s culture
slide53

Politics of Strategy Choice

Politics in Organizations

  • Management hierarchy
  • Career aspirations
  • Allocation of scarce resources
peranan ahli lembaga pengarah
PERANAN AHLI LEMBAGA PENGARAH
  • MengawaldanMemantauPihakPengurusan
  • KepatuhanPerundangan
  • PerhatianterhadapKepentinganStakeholder
  • Pembangunan Hak-HakPemegangSaham
peranan ahli lembaga pengarah1
PERANAN AHLI LEMBAGA PENGARAH
  • MengawaldanMemantauPihakPengurusan
    • MemilihKetuaPegawaiEksekutif (CEO)
    • Meluluskan pemilihan ahli-ahli pasukan pengurusan
    • Memastikanpengurusan yang cekapdanefisien
    • Menilai prestasi pihak pengurusan
    • Menentukantahapgajidanfaedah-faedahsampinganpihakpengurusan
    • Menjaminintegritipihakpengurusanmenerusiprosesaudit yang berterusan
    • Membuatpenilaianterhadappolisi yang hendakdilaksanakanolehpihakpengurusan
peranan ahli lembaga pengarah2
PERANAN AHLI LEMBAGA PENGARAH
  • KepatuhanPerundangan
    • Sentiasa peka dan prihatin terhadap perubahan aspekperundangan yang baru
    • Memastikan keseluruhan aspek organisasi mematuhikeperluan
    • Memilihpengarah-pengarah yang baru
    • Meluluskanbelanjawan modal
    • Meluluskan pinjaman, pengisuan saham-saham baru, bon dan lain-lain
peranan ahli lembaga pengarah3
PERANAN AHLI LEMBAGA PENGARAH
  • PerhatianterhadapKepentingan Stakeholder
    • Memantaukualitiproduk
    • Membangunkan kualiti kehidupan para pekerja
    • Menilai dan menggubal polisi-polisi serta amalan buruh
    • Memelihara hubungan dengan masyarakat
    • Mengekalkanreputasidanimejsyarikat yang baik
    • Menjalankan kerja-kerja sosial dan mewujudkan hubunganyang baikdenganpihakkerajaan
peranan ahli lembaga pengarah4
PERANAN AHLI LEMBAGA PENGARAH
  • Pembangunan Hak-HakPemegangSaham
    • Memeliharaekuitipemegangsaham
    • Merangsangpertumbuhankorporat
    • Memastikan adanya wakil-wakil pemegang saham
    • Sentiasa memberikan maklumat kepada pemegang saham sama ada menerusi surat, laporan-laporandanjugamesyuarat
    • Mengisytiharkan dividen yang difikirkan sesuai
    • Menjaminsurvival korporat
slide59

Governance Issues

Board of Directors Roles & Responsibilities

  • Control & oversight over management
  • Adherence to legal prescriptions
  • Consideration of stakeholder interests
  • Advancement of stockholder rights
global perspective corporate tax rates worldwide europe is lowest
Global PerspectiveCorporate Tax Rates Worldwide – Europe is Lowest
  • Lowest corporate tax rates reside in Europe and European countries
  • Average tax rate in EU countries is 26%
  • Besides tax rates, large markets and affluent markets attract new businesses
  • Taxes can be used to rewardor penalize companies for locating locally or moving overseas
corporate governance issues
Corporate Governance Issues

BusinessWeek’s “Principles of Good Governance”

  • No more than 2 directors are current or former company
  • executives
  • 2. No directors do business with the company
  • 3. Audit, compensation, and nominating committees made upof outside directors
  • 4. Each director owns a large equity stake in the company
  • 5. At least one outside director with extensive experience
  • 6. Fully employed directors sit on no more than 4 boards,
  • retirees on no more than 7
  • 7. Each director attends at least 75% of all meetings
corporate governance issues1
Corporate Governance Issues

Business Week’s “principles of good governance”

8. Board meets regularly without management present

9. Audit committee meets at least four times a year

10. Board is frugal on executive pay, diligent in CEO succession, and prompt to act when trouble arises

11. CEO is not also the chairperson of the board

12. Shareholders have considerable power and information to choose & replace directors

13. Stock options are considered a corporate expense

14. No interlocking directorships