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Reactor Plant Control. The Nuclear Gas Pedal. Topics To Cover. Components of Reactor Reactor Core Reactor Vessel Supporting Components Pressurizer (Pzr) Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP’s) Steam Generators (S/G’s) Shielding Control of Reactor. Goal: Determine Functions. Primary Loop.

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Reactor Plant Control

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reactor plant control

Reactor Plant Control

The Nuclear Gas Pedal

topics to cover
Topics To Cover
  • Components of Reactor
    • Reactor Core
    • Reactor Vessel
  • Supporting Components
    • Pressurizer (Pzr)
    • Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP’s)
    • Steam Generators (S/G’s)
    • Shielding
  • Control of Reactor
core assembly
Core Assembly
  • Fuel Assembly: stores, supports, and isolates fuel
    • Plate: UO2 clad with Zr metal; very thin to allow for effective heat transfer
    • Forms corrosion resistant layer to prevent corrosion by coolant
core assembly1
Core Assembly
  • Primary Coolant: removes heat produced by fission in fuel
    • Naval reactors use water (effective, easily replaceable, does not radiate)
    • Typical outlet temp ~ 500 oF
    • Typical inlet temp ~ 450 oF
  • Typical temp w/in core = ?
pressure vessel
Pressure Vessel
  • Purpose: provides structural support for Rx core & directs flow of coolant thru core
  • Closure Head: removable cover on top of pressure vessel
    • Closure bolts hold down
    • Uses seal to prevent leakage
    • Houses Control Rods
control rods
Control Rods
  • Shutdown: with all rods lowered, Rx cannot go critical
  • Startup: lift control rods to reduce “leakage” until Rx is critical; continue to lift until temp of moderator reacts to rod height changes -> let moderator control power
  • SCRAM: quick shutdown of Rx; drop rods to bottom vice electronically lower (SuperCritical Reactor Ax Man)
pressurizer pzr
Pressurizer (Pzr)
  • Purpose: maintains primary coolant in subcooled state (prevent boiling) and provides surge volume for power transients
  • Operates at saturation conditions to allow for steam space (NO other part of primary at saturation conditions)
  • Uses electric heaters/spray to maintain high temp & pressure
pressurizer pzr1
Pressurizer (Pzr)
  • If Pzr not used:
    • Boiling in reactor core reduces ability to remove heat (mass flow rate and heat capacity reduced)
    • Boiling in pumps causes cavitation -> loss of flow through core
reactor coolant pumps rcp
Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP)
  • RCP: circulates primary coolant through the core
  • Multiple RCP’s for redundancy
steam generator s g
Steam Generator (S/G)
  • S/G: acts as heat sink for reactor and produces steam for MS system
    • Shell and tube heat exchanger
    • Moisture Separators
    • Non-nuclear side called the “Secondary”
  • Serves two purposes:
    • Reduce radiation outside reactor compartment to protect personnel
    • Reduce radiation inside reactor compartment to protect instruments/equipment
  • All contained within RC to minimize radiation:
    • Pressure Vessel & Core
    • Pressurizer (Pzr)
    • Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP’s)
    • Steam Generators (S/G’s)
reactor plant control1
Reactor Plant Control
  • Core reactivity/power is inversely proportional to moderator temperature (negative temperature coefficient)
  • Operating AA1/3 -> AAIII Ordered
  • Open throttles -> Steam demand -> Tc
  • Tave -> density moderator -> greater chance neutrons will collide with H2O
reactor control
Reactor Control
  • Higher prob. that neutron will thermalize and cause fission -> fission rate -> Rx power
  • Th -> Tave -> density moderator -> more chance of fast leakage
  • Lower prob. that neutron will thermalize -> fission rate -> reactor power
  • Tave returns to steady state
reactor control1
Reactor Control
  • While Tave will remain roughly constant from steady-state to steady-state, Th and Tc will change depending on steam demand