Health and Physical Education Getting its fair share of the curriculum pie
Just a few generations ago, physical activity was an integral part of daily life. In the name of progress, we’ve now chipped away at it so thoroughly that physical inactivity actually seems normal. Physical Education is shifting from simply games and movement to a holistic approach. Whether it is taught by specialist teachers, or classroom teachers, we need to expose and teach the multifaceted nature of health, PE and Sport. The economic costs are unacceptable, the human costs are unforgiveable. Robust evidence and scientific backing ends the debate. Urgent priority must be given to dramatically increase the commitment to physical activity. Decreasing the significance and time allotments of health and physical education within school curriculums are detrimental to the social, emotional, intellectual and physical development and well-being of students. Http://www.Youtube.Com/watch?V=jgskdrv4t0g
Facts A multimillion-dollar study into the effect of physical education for primary school children has found aerobic fitness levels have a direct correlation with literacy and numeracy test results. ''There's a clear relationship, the fittest schools are the ones which got the best results.'‘ Dr Telford “improved perceptual motor development positively affects a child’s academic performance.” “physical exercise is an important instrument for public health initiatives to optimize educational achievements, cognitive performance, as well as disease prevention at the society level” Aberg et al. (2009)
Facts Research shows developed economies have reduced physical activity levels by as much as 32 per cent in fewer than two generations. By 2030, almost half will be as active as they were in 1965. Designed to Move presents findings from independent research commissioned by Nike, Inc. Ng, S.W. and Popkin, B.M. (2012). Time use and physical activity: a shift away from movement across the globe. Obesity Reviews. do i: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00982.x. Rapidly rising rates of chronic disease, escalating health care costs and shorter life spans are all linked to declining levels of physical activity. Within the Whittlesea community 16% (4% higher than the state average) do not get enough physical activity daily. - we are only talking a minimum of 60 minutes a day! - that means daily 145 children are not getting enough exercise everyday. - we already give them 75 minutes a day in recess/lunch and yet they still are unable to reach a daily quota (a brisk walk is all they need to reach the quota!) These consequences compound across generations, as physically inactive children grow up to pass the costs and behaviours on to their own children. Health begins where we live, learn, work and play. All Australians should have the opportunity to make the choices that allow them to live a long, healthy life, regardless of their income, education or ethnic background.
Facts Ortega et al. (2008) found improvements in cardio respiratory fitness have positive effects on depression, anxiety, mood status and self-esteem, and seem also to be associated with a higher academic performance.
Studies found… Fitter, happier, more productive – Fleta Page They looked at two things: the effect of physical activity and the value of having specialist physical education in primary school. Measuring the NAPLAN. When I measured and found there was statistical significance, real results between the two groups, I must admit that was a bit of a surprise. ''There's a clear relationship, the fittest schools are the ones which got the best results.'' http://www.smh.com.au/national/fitter-happier-more-productive-20130629-2p3vk.html#ixzz2boRulRW2 Physical activity was a significant, positive predictor of academic achievement. Body mass index (BMI), diet and physical activity explained up to 24% of the variance in academic achievement after controlling for gender, parental education, family structure and absenteeism. Sigfusdottir ID, Kristjansson AL, Allegrante JP. Health behaviour and academic achievement in Icelandic school children. Health Educ. Res. June 9, 2006 2006:cyl044.
Studies found… Students reporting a high level of exercise spent more time in sport and achieved higher grade point averages Field T, Diego M, Sanders CE. Exercise is positively related to adolescent’s relationships and academics. Adolescence. 2001;36(141):105. The frequency and extent of sports participation was significantly higher for students with high self-ratings of academic performance Lidner KJ. Sport participation and perceived academic performance of school children and youth. Pediatric Exercise Science. 1999;11:129-143. In addition to these findings, three studies highlighted that children can spend less time in academic learning sessions and more time being physically active, without affecting academic success or progress. Dollman J, Boshoff K, Dodd G. The relationship between curriculum time for physical education and literacy and numeracy standards in South Australian primary schools. European Physical Education Review. June 1, 2006 2006;12(2):151-163. 13. Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Kolody B, Lewis M, Marshall S, Rosengard P. Effects of Health-Related Physical Education on Academic Achievement: Project Spark. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. June 1999 1999;70(2):127-134. Dwyer T, Coonan WE, Worsley LA, Leitch DR. An assessment of the effects of two physical activity programs on coronary heart disease risk factors in primary school children. Community Health Study. 1979;3:196-202.
Department Facts (DEECD) The Department states that all government schools must meet compulsory time requirements for physical and sport education for students from years Prep to 10. Schools are required to timetable: • 20 - 30 minutes of physical education a day for years Prep to 3 • three hours of physical and sport education a week with a minimum provision of 50 per cent for physical education for years 4 to 6 • one hundred minutes per week each for physical education and sport for years 7 to 10. Fundamental skills are those utilitarian skills that children need for living & being. (Pangrazi & Dauer, 1992, p. 291) Fundamental motor skills (FMS) are the foundation movements or precursor patterns to more specialised, complex skills in games, sports, dance, aquatics, gymnastics and recreational activities. Current research indicates that the current level of FMS development in a child’s early years is inadequate. (DECCD, 1997, p. 4) Without competence in a range of skills such as running, skipping and balancing, students are less likely to access the range of options available to establish an active lifestyle. (DECCD, 1997) Research has indicated that the improvements in self esteem and confidence that are associated with a sound development in FMS has a flow on effect to other areas of a child’s education. (DECCD, 1997)
A critical window A CRITICAL WINDOW The First Ten Years of Life “Today, the urgent priority is to break cycles of physical inactivity where they are already deeply entrenched, and prevent them in emerging economies where we still have time. While it’s essential for everyone to be physically active, focusing on children before the age of 10 could change the trajectory for the next generation. Nature made kids perpetual motion machines for a reason. Starting in infancy, children develop the motor skills that will provide the foundation for their physical activity experiences later on. Children who move often from a young age have better developed motor skills, which positively impact the physical activity experiences they’ll have as they get older. As they head into adolescence, kids draw the blueprints for their adult lives. Their preferences and motivations—for physical activity or anything else—form during this key developmental phase. Reaching kids before this developmental moment is a critical key to breaking the cycle of physical inactivity. The benefits will start to accrue early on and, kids who learn to love being active are more likely to grow up to be adults who are active. If that happens, they’ll have hard-playing kids of their own and the positive cycle will take hold.”
Why is early intervention the key? Children who are 5/6/7 years of age have the neurological & anatomical ability to develop skills in ALL fundamental motor skills. By Grade 4 children have established their belief in physical activity & sport.
PMP PMP’s aim to be preventative rather than curativeand should involve all students in their early years of schooling, not just children who are “at risk”. Why have PMP and specialist PE programs? It influences non-impaired children (Learning Readiness) as well as influences children requiring remedial programs for skills (Remediation)
Problems arising without adequate FMS and PMP training • have problems with all manual skills such as managing buttons, pencil grip, avoiding colouring activities, dislikes jigsaws and trouble managing scissors. • display a difficulty in expressing themselves properly (poor speech, stuttering) • demonstrate difficulty with spatial awareness and poor visual perception. • mixed laterality e.g. children who may write with their left hand but prefer to hop on their right leg. • cannot filter out irrelevant sounds and stimuli, easily distracted, talk loudly to drown out background noise. • poor eye contact • immature head movement development e.g moves their head while reading instead of moving their eyes or jerky head movement while reading • poor visual memory • poor auditory memory (one instruction at a time) • squints, red rimmed eyes, headaches, watery eyes following reading, book close to eyes when reading and inability to cope with small print. • Reversals with letters and numbers • Children with poor concentration and learning ability leads to poor comprehension e.g can read well but demonstrates little comprehension. • Children who demonstrate poor time concepts e.g unaware of lunch time and dinner time, yesterday and tomorrow. • Children who display midline problems. Children who have not integrated both sides of their body e.g may be ambidextrous, writing hand may change, when writing across one side of the page then moves the paper so they do not cross the midline. • ANSUA. (1991). Movement for learning. Motor sensory therapy. Victoria:
Pyramid of skill attainment Higher Skill Attainment Specialised Skills Fundamental Skills Body Management Competence
Context “Before he can learn that “p” is down and “b” is up, he must learn when he is down and when he is up. Directionality must become a part of the body scheme before any child can have a real appreciation of the directionality of letters, numbers and words.” (Capon, 1975)
Physical activity reaches beyond the classroom The science is clear. Physical activity does more than create good health. It contributes to leadership, productivity and innovation. It lowers depression and crime, increases educational achievement and income levels, and generates returns to businesses in the community. Bailey, R. et. al (2012). Physical Activity as an Investment in Personal and Social Change: The Human Capital Model
Increases in: Intellectual Educational attainment School engagement Memory Academic performance Brain structure and function Concentration/attention/impulse control ADHD management Age related cognitive decline management Physical General motor skills Fitness Muscular strength Body composition Immune system function Nutrition/diet Joint and bone health Emotional Fun, enjoyment, satisfaction Feeling good Self esteem Self efficacy Body image Intrinsic motivation for physical activity Social Social norms Positive relationships/networks Social inclusion Civic participation Bridging differences (socio economic status, racial, ethnic, disability, religious, sexual) Individual Values Social skills/Life skills/ Non-cognitive skills Sportsmanship Time management Goal setting Initiative/Leadership Honesty/Integrity/Respect/ Responsibility Enthusiasm/Intrinsic motivation Commitment/Self discipline/ Self control/Persistence Assertiveness & courage
Decreases in: Absenteeism Type 2 Diabetes Mortality CVD Stroke Hypertension Teen pregnancy Smoking Drug use Suicide Risky sex Stress Depression Anxiety The sheer number of absentees during the school year gives weight to the need to decrease absenteeism, and the significance of a successful Health and Physical Education in reducing this. Some children take most satisfaction at school through Sport and PE initiatives. PE and Sport can be the catalyst for many students deciding to come to school on a given day.
Solutions • ''The way to do it is to have a specialist PE teacher, accessible to the generalist primary school teachers, to continually motivate them and professionally develop them… that's a real workable option.'‘ • Dr. Telford (Sports Scientist at the Australian Institute of Sport and now an elite running coach and adjunct associate professor at the Australian National University medical school.
Solutions • Offer individual classes for at risk children eg. “PMP Squad” a specialised class for children to enhance their gross and fine motor skills, tracking skills, and other areas found lacking. • Particular focus to address issues surrounding students with poor spatial awareness, poor visual perception, inability to filter out irrelevant sounds and stimuli, easily distracted, poor eye contact, poor visual memory, poor auditory memory (one instruction at a time) and students who reverse letters and numbers
Solutions • Expanding elective options to cover target HPE domains as well as integrating other curriculums. • “kill two birds with one stone!” • Inquiry/PATHS units to be taught by specialist PE staff. • e.g. Term 1 Inquiry (Prep – Looking after myself)
Did you know? What needs to be covered in the teaching of Health and PE? Do you know how many other domains and areas we cover by using integrated learning? Science Forces affect the behaviour of objects; and that energy can be transferred and transformed from one form to another. Physical Education can highlight the understanding of how an object’s motion (direction, speed and acceleration) is influenced by a range of contact and non-contact forces. Inquiry skills Questioning and predicting: e.g. How high can a variety of sport balls bounce, how does this effect how we use them in sport. Planning and conducting: e.g. use a variety of balls and measure the height/number of their bounces. Processing and analysing data and information: e.g. represent patterns in eating habits of children within the school, represent and measure different fitness levels of students in your class. Evaluating and communicating: conveying the message and evaluating the significance of eating habits.
Did you know? What needs to be covered in the teaching of Health and PE? Do you know how many other domains and areas we cover by using integrated learning? Maths Measurements, probability and statistics surrounding sporting events, nutritional information, world records, counting, scoring etc. Humanities Codes, laws and ethics within society and then within sport context. History History through sport, changes in equipment, evolution of technology in sport Interpersonal Development Social relationships within community and school, cooperatively working within teams