translation analysis of animal farm according to catford s shift theory by m naderi n.
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catford s biography
Catford’s biography
  • John CunnisonCatford (called "Ian" by his students), was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. After his secondary and university studies, he studied phonetics. He taught English abroad (in Greece, in Palestine and in Egypt), including during World War II.

Catford founded the School of Applied Linguistics at the University of Edinburgh, as well as another department in the same university that undertook the mapping of different English dialects throughout Scotland. Catford could identify where people were from exclusively through their speech


His expertise - which included formal phonetics, the aerodynamic and physiological production of speech – led him to be invited to the University of Michigan. There, he headed the English Language Institute and the Laboratory of Communicative Sciences (current the Laboratory of Phonetics). He taught most of the Linguistics subjects in the same university.


He retired in 1985, but didn't become inactive. On the contrary: he was invited to some of the most prestigious universities around the globe, including those in Istanbul, Jerusalem and California. He published numerous articles, participated in many conferences and continued to lecture and give presentations, especially at the University of Michigan. Many of his original works are kept there. He advised many university students who wanted to follow a career in Linguistics.


Among his many articles, published essays and other works, it is worth highlighting the following:

1) A Practical Introduction to Phonetics

2) Linguistic Theory of Translation: an essay in Applied Linguistics

3) Fundamental Problems in Phonetics

4) Word-stress and sentence-stress: a practical and theoretical guide for teachers of Basic English

5) A Linguistic Theory of Translation

catford s theories in a linguistic theory of translation
Catford’s theories in “A Linguistic Theory of Translation”

1)General linguistic theory

2)Translation: Definition and general types

3)Translation equivalence

4)Formal correspondence

5)Meaning and total translation


7)Condition of translation equivalence


8)Phonological translation

9)Graphological translation


11)Grammatical and lexical translation

12)Translation shifts

13)Language varieties in translation

14)The limits of translatability

translation shifts
Translation Shifts
  • The actual term shift was introduced by Catford(1965) in the field of translation. It means “ departure from formal correspondence in the process of going from SL.”
category shifts
Category Shifts
  • 1)Structure-shifts, which involve a grammatical change between the structure of the ST and that of the TT.

E.g: No animalshall killany other animal

S V Obj

without cause.(Chapter8,p 54)

هیچ حیوانی نباید حیوان دیگری را بی دلیل بکشد.(حسینی ، نبی زاده،ص 93)



Whymperhad bought himself a dogcart.(Chapter10,p 77)

SV obj

وایپر برای خودش درشکه تک اسبه ایخریده


بود.(حسینی،نبی زاده،ص 129)


2) Class-shifts, when an SL item is translated with a TL item which belongs to a different grammatical class, i.e. an adjective may be translated with a noun and so on


E.g: Meanwhile life was hard.(Chapter9,p 66)


در این بین زندگی به سختی می گذشت.(حسینی،نبی زاده،ص113)


در این خلال زندگی سخت بود.(امیرشاهی،ص 84)



E.g: so that all the materials for building were at hand.(Chapter6,p36) N

با این حساب تمام مصالح ساختمانی دم دستشان بود.(حسینی،نبی زاده،ص65) صفت

یعنی تمام مصالح ساختمانی در دسترس بود.(امیرشاهی،ص 49)


3) Unit(rank)shifts: which involve change in rank i.e. translating a phrase with a clause.


E.g: They (horses) were fine upstanding beats, willing workers and good comrades , but very stupid.(Chapter10,p76) ph.

ph. Ph.

اسبهای قوی بنیه ای بودند،خوب کار میکردند و رفقای خوبی هم بودند ولی

جمله جمله

درخرفتی رو دستنداشتند.(حسینی،نبی زاده،ص128)


اسبهای خوب و قابل ملاحظه ای بودند،خوب کار میکردند و رفقای خوبی بودند ولی احمق بودند.(امیرشاهی،ص96)


4) Intra-system shifts, which occur when SL and TL possess systems which approximately correspond formally as to their constitution, but when translation involves selection of a non-corresponding term in the TL system.


E.g: The seasons came and went , the short animallives fled by.(Chapter10,p76)


فصلها آمدند و عمر کوتاه حیوانات هم به سر آمد.(حسینی،نبی زاده،ص127)

مفرد جمع

فصول اولیه آمد و رفت و عمر کوتاه حیوانات سپری شد.(امیرشاهی،ص95)


E.g: FOUR LEGS GOOD,TWO LEGS BAD, was inscribed on the end wall of the barn, above the Seven Commandments and in bigger letters.(Chapter 3,p20)


پا خوب، دو پا بد را بر دیوار طویله بالای هفت فرمان و با حرفی درشت تر از آن نوشتند.(حسینی،نبی زاده،ص37)

چهار پا خوب،دو پا بد بر دیوار قلعه و بالای هفت فرمان و با حرفی درشت تر نوشته شد.(امیرشاهی،ص30)