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Chapter 6: Material Management Helmut Steiner Ulrich Priesmeyer Kernkraftwerk Gundremmingen GmbH Priesmeyer, KRB A, 6. Material Management
Expected Volume of Radioaktive Waste ... is in general determinded by • type and quality of construction materials • quality of the used nuclear fuel • age of the plant • operational history • availability of clearance levels for materials
Volumes of LLW and ILW from Reactor Operations and Decommissioning in m³
Major Primary Waste Stream • Burnable wastes (protective clothing, wood from ventilated hoods, laboratory furniture...) • Low to High level massive metallic wastes (reactor internals, reactor pressure vessel, primary pumps, reservoirs, valves, structural materials...) • Low to High level super-compactable metallic wastes (same sources as above plus e.g. electric cables, light supports, instrumentation...) • Massive concrete wastes from slightly activated or contaminated slabs, floors, shielding walls, room walls... • Concrete and bricks super-compactable rubble from demolition activities of activated or contaminated materials. • Sludges from deposits in reservoirs and liquid sumps. • Light non metallic super-compactable materials (isolation, asbestos...) • Special waste such as contaminated lead bricks and shielding.
Radiological Characterisation • Protection of workers, public, environment • classification of operations • waste processing • costs
Important Factors for Decommissioning • existence of a waste repository or at least • defined acceptance criteria for radioactive waste • criteria or clearance levels for unrestricted release of material
Residuals and Removed Parts of the Plant Non-hazardous Re-use Release for Conventional Dump Radioactive Waste Melting Conditioning Deconta-mination Final Repository Re-use Refuse Disposal Site Ways of disposal
Definitions and working steps duringtreatment of material material arising during decommissioning checking if reuse or recycling is possible yes reuse no conditioning raw waste pretreatment: incineration, shredding, evaporation, etc. interim product treatment: drying, compaction,cementation, pouring, etc. waste product packaging container waste package interim storage final disposal
contaminated piece of material economical investigation 1. cost / benefit-analyses 2. risk / benefit-analyses 3. conditioning / storage-analyses measurement or calculation of the contamination Above release limit negative positive choice of the appropiate decontamination process lower than release limit decontamination for the purpose of reuse decontamination for the purpose of recycling decontamination for the purpose of segmentation measurement of decontamination success measurement of decontamination success measurement of decontamination success material can be reused ? no material can be reused ? no Conditioning and packaging yes yes reuse recycling disposal as conventional waste final disposal Decontamination measures forpossible waste streams
S 7,075 Mg 1,708 Mg 5,348 Mg Status: 30.06.02 Material Balance at KRB A
Material Flow during Decommissioning systems + components operating material tools post-dismantling decontamination free release recycling waste
Technical Measures and Methods for Conditioning of Radioactive Waste SolidWaste - Direct packaging - Compaction - Super-Compaction - Incineration with super-compaction of ashes) LiquidWaste - Incineration - Fixation - Filtration, Decantation - Evaporation