206AR-WEEK 7DESIGn: DESIGn SOLUTIONS & HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL MEASUREMENTS Vocabulary
WARM-UP DESIGN SOLUTIONS
Watch the video and talk about these questions. • What was happening in the video? • Did you like the presentation? Why? • Did the listeners understand the presenter? Why? • How was the presenter’s explanations? • What are the key elements of a design brief?
READING Read the text «Design Solutions» in five minutes. Underline the words and sentences you don’t understand.
Vocabulary items Propose (v.): to suggest or intend to do sth E.g. When you design a device, you need to identified a need, research possible solutions,design proposed products, prepare models, manufacture the prototype, test the result, and usefeedback from peers and professionals to improve thedevice.
Vocabulary items Draw up (Phr. v.): to make or write sth that needs careful thought or planning E.g. A plan must also be drawnup to ensure that parts are made in the right order for assembly.
Vocabulary items Solution (n): a way of solving a problem or dealing with a difficult situation E.g. The technology education teacher could ask the students to list possible solutions and provide reasons for selecting their finaldesignsolution, which would require students to carefully think through the various options.
Vocabulary items Function (n): the intended use of sth E.g. The prime operating functionofa check valve is to close quickly at flow reversals to prevent damage to upstream piping and piping components.
Vocabulary items Constraint (n): a thing that limits or restricts sth E.g. Real problem is that building any project in such a remote, poor village imposes strict constraints on any design.
Vocabulary items Exceed (v): to be greater than a particular number or amount E.g. Provided that the maximum surface strain does not exceed 0.1 percent such problems do not usually arise.
Vocabulary items Existing models (adj+n): competing products already on the market, or the current model that the new product will replace E.g. Sales of existingmodels of Boeing and Airbus aircraft are strong, and both companies are developing new models.
Vocabulary items Design features (n+n): specific things a new design must have E.g. After you identify specific designfeatures (design criteria) and take detailed measurements and identify cost, manufacturing requirements, and constraints of the product, you will be able to determine which product model provides the optimal design solution.
Vocabulary items Budget (n): the money that is available to a person or organization and a plan of how it will be spent over a period of time E.g. Remember this: people will remember good work (or bad work) a lot longer than they will remember if you were a week late or over budget.
Vocabulary items Cost-effective (adj): producing good results for the amount of money spent; efficient or economical E.g. The project is highly cost-effective, costing only around £ 12000. The project of the other firm costs £ 20000.
Vocabulary items Specifications (n): a detailed description of design criteria for a piece of work including information about materials, sizes, and technical requirements of components. Specify (v): E.g. The specifications for the new building was sent by the company yesterday. Itspecified the materials and sizes, but there was no information about the technical requirements of the components.
Vocabulary items Evaluate (v): Identify and calculate E.g. Engineers need to evaluate the forces that the components will have to carry when they are designing.
Vocabulary items Load (n): something that a person, animal or thing is carrying. E.g. An example of load is furniture stacked into a moving van.
Vocabulary items Determine (v): Identify, to find out exactly, calculate precisely E.g. When you determine the loads that a bridge will have to carry, you need to think of every detail such as strong winds.
Vocabulary items Quantify (v): To quantify means to measure or express the quantity of something. E.g. An example of to quantify is to count the number misspelled wordsin a book.
Vocabulary items Worst-case scenario (adj+n): The worst situations that you can think of E.g. You need to be ready by planning for the worst-case scenario.
Vocabulary items Allow for/ factor in (phr v): take into account, take into consideration E.g. You need to allow for the maximum load so that you will be ready for the worst-case scenario.
Vocabulary items Factor of safety (n+n): The extra margin to make your design really strong. E.g. A factorof 1.5 increases the load a component can carry by % 50.
Vocabulary items Size (n): Dimensions of something like small, medium, or large. E.g. Please bear in mind if downloading from the internet that the map is usually for a4 size and is no good for a book.
Vocabulary items Overdesign (v): Add excessive factors of safety E.g. Overdesigningis necessary but it increases the costs.
Vocabulary items Murphy’s law (n+n): The idea that «anything that can go wrong, will go wrong.» E.g. When you are in a hurry, the bus is always late. It’s the Murphy’s Law.
Vocabulary items Belt and braces (n+n): using more than one method to make sure that something is safe. E.g. Our staff have identity cards and number codes to open doors - that's part of our belt and braces approach to security.
VOCABULARY WORKSHEET DESIGN SOLUTIONS
WARM-UP HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL MEASUREMENTS
Talk about these questions. • What is an «Airbus 380»? • Do you know anything about its dimensions? • What does «horizontal» and «vertical» mean?
READING Read the text «Horizontal and Vertical Measurements» in five minutes. Underline the words and sentences you don’t understand.
Vocabulary items Vertical(adj.): going straight up or down from a level surface or from a top to bottom in a picture etc. Syn: perpendicular Vertically (adv.) Horizontal(adj.): parallel to the ground or to the bottom or top edge of something. Horizontally (adv.)
Vocabulary items e.g: If you place vertical lines next to horizontal lines, the difference between the two is 90 degrees. e.g: You can use horizontal and vertical lines as a guide when editing your drawings. e.g: The depth of a lake is measured vertically from the surface of the water. e.g: Measure the aircraft’s body horizontally to learn how wide it is.
What is dimension? • Dimension is a measurement of something in a particular direction, especially its height, length or width. Abbr. Dimension - dim Dimensions - dims. e.g: Don’t forget to measure the dimensions ofthe shelves so that they fit securely into the cabinet. e.g: An average football pitch has the dimensions of 105m by 68m.
Linear Dimensions • Linear dimensions, or linear units, measure the distance between two points. Since two points define a line, the units of distance are sometimes called "linear" units or dimensions. • Some linear dimensions are • centimeters and inches, • meters and feet, • kilometers and miles...
Vocabulary items • Measure (v): To find the size, quantity, etc. of something in standard units. Measuring something puts the amount of the thing into numbers. e.g: The area in front of our house was measured yesterday. It’s 1 kilometre by 2 kilometres. • Measurement (n): The act or the process of finding the size, quantity or degree of something. e.g: The exact measurements of the room are 3 metres 20 by 5 metres.
Vocabulary items • Plane (n): a flat or level surface or an imaginary flat surface which continues in all directions. • Vertical Plane: a plane that passes through a vertical line. It is perpendicular to the ground. • Horizontal Plane: an imaginary plane which is at a right angle to the vertical plane. It extends horizontally.
Vocabulary items • Span (n): 1) The distance between two points. 2) The part of a bridge between one vertical support and another. e.g: In 1955, a two-span bridge was built to carry trains across to the river. a single span bridge a two-span bridge
Vocabulary items • Wingspan(n): the distance between the end of one wing and the end of the other when the wings are fully stretched. e.g: The green glider has a wingspan of 80 meters.
Vocabulary items • Width (n): The distance across something from one side to the other. E.g: The additional cabin width offers passengers wider seats and more aisle space. I___cabin(internal) width___I
Vocabulary items • Extremity (n): The furthest point, especially from the centre. E.g. An extra engine was installed at the rear extremity of the aircraft. • Thickness (n): The size of something between opposite surfaces or sides. Syn. Width E.g. The walls are at least two feet in thickness.
Read the web page (dimensions of Airbus A380) in the book and answer the questions. • What is overall length? Overall Length is the measurement which is taken between the two points that are furthest apart, along the length (the whole distance along it) of the aircraft. • How is the overall height of an aircraft measured? Overall height is measured vertically between the underside of the wheels and a horizontal plane touching the top of the tail.
Read the web page (dimensions of Airbus A380) in the book and answer the questions. • How is external width (maximum fuselage width) measured? External width of an aircraft is measured horizontally between vertical planes touching the outside faces of the fuselage (body).
Dimensions of an aircraft A ? B ? C ? D ? A - Overall height B - Wingspan C - Maximum fuselage width D – Overall length
Vocabulary items • Level (adj.): Horizontal and flat. E.g: I couldn’t place the box properly because the ground was not level. • Incline (n): To lean or slope in a particular direction. Inclined (adj.): sloping; at an angle. E.g: In this picture the surface has an incline of twenty degrees.
Vocabulary items • Plumb (adj.): Exactly straight, usually describing a vertical surface or line. E.g. When you hang a door, you need to make sure that it is both level and plumb. • Out of plumb: Not straight vertically. E.g. Tower of Pisa is about 15 feet out of plumb.
VOCABULARY WORKSHEET HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL MEASUREMENTS
VOCABULARY GAME DESIGN SOLUTIONS & HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL MEASUREMENTS