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CH. 16-4 TAFT AND WILSON. AMERICAN HISTORY. PROGRESSIVISM UNDER TAFT. Election of 1908—William Taft (R) vs. three-time candidate William Jennings Bryan (D) Taft wins by nearly 1.27 million votes Taft worked to secure Roosevelt’s progressive reforms

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ch 16 4 taft and wilson

CH. 16-4 TAFT AND WILSON

AMERICAN HISTORY

progressivism under taft
PROGRESSIVISM UNDER TAFT
  • Election of 1908—William Taft (R) vs. three-time candidate William Jennings Bryan (D)
  • Taft wins by nearly 1.27 million votes
  • Taft worked to secure Roosevelt’s progressive reforms
  • He also supported creating a Department of Labor
  • XVIth Amendment introduced during this administration but ratified after he left office in 1913.
slide3

Granted Congress the power to levy taxes on individual income

  • Progressives supported an income tax to pay for government programs more fairly
  • Taft lost the support of most progressive Republicans
  • The House passed a bill which lowered tariffs on imported goods
  • The Senate version had so many amendments that it turned into a high-tariff bill
slide4

Taft signed the bill anyway

  • Progressives were outraged because they thought lower tariffs were a key to lowering prices on consumer goods
  • Taft also alienated Progressive conservation supporters.
  • His secretary of the Interior, Richard Ballinger, was accused of impeding an investigation of public coal-land deals in Alaska
  • Gifford Pinchot accused Ballinger with sabotaging conservation efforts.
  • Taft fired Pinchot
slide5

Roosevelt had supported Taft for President but withdrew his support

  • SPLIT IN THE REPUBLICAN PARTY
  • 1910—Roosevelt campaigned for congressional candidates that opposed Taft
  • Roosevelt proposed “New Nationalism”
  • Republicans lost control of the House of Representatives for the first time in 16 years
slide6

Election of 1912—Republican party was badly fractured

  • Taft (I-R) vs. Woodrow Wilson (D) vs. Roosevelt (Progressive-Bull Moose)
  • Electoral college totals—Wilson 435, Roosevelt 88, Taft 8
wilson s new freedom
WILSON’S NEW FREEDOM
  • Wilson was a zealous reformer
  • NEW FREEDOM—called for tariff reduction, banking reform, and stronger antitrust legislation—causes supported by Progressives
  • TARIFF REDUCTION
  • Wilson became the first President since John Adams to address a joint session of Congress
  • 1913—Congress passes the Underwood Tariff Act
  • Reduced tariffs to their lowest level in 50 years
slide8

Tariff reduction meant the government had less money

  • The answer was a graduated income tax based on income level
  • BANKING REFORM
  • Banks regularly collapsed because too many people withdrew their money at once
  • FEDERAL RESERVE ACT (1913)—created a fund for banks to borrow from to prevent collapse during a financial panic
slide9

Federal Reserve Act created a three-tier banking system

  • Tier I—Federal Reserve Board—group of persons appointed by the President to run the system
  • Tier II—12 Federal Reserve Banks—these banks served other banks instead of individuals
  • Tier III—Private banks that could borrow from the Federal Reserve as necessary
slide10

First time banks were regulated by the government

  • STRONGER ANTI-TRUST LAWS
  • Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)—prohibited companies from buying stock in competing companies
  • Made strikes, boycotts, and peaceful picketing legal for the first time
slide11

Wilson support the Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

  • Enforced antitrust laws and prohibited deceptive advertising
women gain the vote
WOMEN GAIN THE VOTE
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association favored state-by-state approach to women voting
  • Only 4 western states had given women full voting rights
  • Alice Paul and Lucy Burns broke off and formed the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage in 1916
  • The group wanted a constitutional amendment granting voting rights to women
slide13

Members picketed the White House in January 1917, chaining themselves to the railings

  • Many picketers were arrested
  • Some went on hunger strikes in prison
  • The state-by-state approach was gaining momentum
  • More states tried to pass women’s voting rights but failed
  • Carrie Chapman Catt launched a new strategy
slide14

1917—World War I—Women strongly support the war effort

  • Their patriotism weakens the opposition to women voting
  • Congress proposed the XIXth Amendment in 1919 and it was ratified in 1920 granting full voting rights to women
progressivism and the rights of african americans
PROGRESSIVISM AND THE RIGHTS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS
  • Progressive reform had limited success for African Americans
  • Roosevelt hosted Booker T. Washington for dinner at the White House (a first)
  • Roosevelt appointed an African American to be a tariff collector in South Carolina
  • Brownsville, TX—12 members of the 25th Infantry were accused of going on a shooting spree in town
  • If no one accepted responsibility, the entire group would be dishonorably discharged
slide16

No one came forward

  • Roosevelt signed papers discharging 167 African American soldiers, denying them back pay and canceling their pensions
  • The truth came out years later
  • 1972—Records were corrected to show “honorable discharge”
  • Wilson had a bad record on civil rights
  • He opposed a federal anti-lynching law
  • He allowed cabinet members to segregate their offices
slide17

Congress passed a law saying it is a felony for blacks and whites to marry in the District of Columbia

  • The outbreak of WWI brought an end to the Progressive era
  • World War I, not progressivism, dominated Wilson’s 2nd term in office
  • THE END