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Sólveig Jakobsdóttir & Torfi Hjartarson Iceland University of Education PowerPoint Presentation
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Sólveig Jakobsdóttir & Torfi Hjartarson Iceland University of Education

Sólveig Jakobsdóttir & Torfi Hjartarson Iceland University of Education

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Sólveig Jakobsdóttir & Torfi Hjartarson Iceland University of Education

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  1. Information & Communications Technology (ICT) Use among Icelandic StudentsMoving into the New Millennium Sólveig Jakobsdóttir & Torfi HjartarsonIceland University of Education Presentation at Ed-Media, Honolulu, June 27th 2003

  2. ? Big questions ? • How can computer use and ICT have positive impact of young people’s learning, development and future?

  3. We want...? People to • Become literate – (also new types of literacy – computer, IT, culture... ; Icelandic national curriculum describes further)? • Be able to use computers and ICT for the benefit of themselves and others in communications, collaboration, creative work, in learning, work, play..? • Become better and more active citizens in a democratic society? • Be confident, critical, positive? • Don’t suffer from problems related to computer use (physical problems, social isolation, Internet or game addiction)?

  4. Two studies • Online Surveys done in 1998 and 2002 (mostly quantitative data) concerning computer and Internet use in schools and at home mostly grades 5-10 • Data gathered with online questionaire by graduate students at Iceland University of Education – online program about ICT in education (Icelandic teachers located in different parts of the country) • Questionnaires based on work done in PhD thesis on elementary school computer culture (case study mosty based on qualitative methods) by Solveig Jakobsdottir • Study 2002 part of NámUST (LearnICT) project, see http://namust.khi.is and earlier presentation.

  5. School computer culture - Important factors See SJ doctoral thesis http://soljak.khi.is/thesisvef

  6. Participants • 2002: 1403 students • 13 primary+lower sec. • *8 from capital area. • *5 from other areasOne upper sec: (F) *capital area. • 1998: 761 students • 9 primary+lower sec. • *4 from capital area • *5 from countryside • One upper secondary*capital area. Number of students Year Missing • 2. 3. 4. Grade/year

  7. ? Question - skills ? Changes from 1998 to 2002? • How much do students think they know at the end of lower secondary school – has there been an increase in number of skills? • Are there gender-related differences in skills?

  8. Skills grade 9-10% of students that claim they have install software save files delete files print program link to Internet make web page make picture make slides Spreads/calculate find info on web use e-mail chat use conferences other • Sign. higher % 2002 than 1998 in all skills but one (use spreadsheets to calculate and create pictures). • Gender differences: • 1998 Boys sign. higher no. in all but one (save doc.) • 2002 Boys sign. higher no. in all but three (print, use e-mail, chat). Year

  9. Mean number of skills (14), differences between years • Mean higher in every age group 2002 than 1998 • 1998: Gender diff. in every age group grade 7 and up • 2002: Gender diff. in grades 6 and 8 and up (marginally sign. In grade 5 but not in grade 7. • Gender differences less than before in grades 7 and 8 (strong years or permanent trend?) Mean number of skills Year Grade/year in school

  10. Mean number of skills (14) by gender and age1998 and 2002 Mean number of skills Gender Girls Boys Grade/year in school Grade/year in school • ?

  11. ? Questions - attitudes ? Changes from 1998 to 2002? • What are students computer-related attitudes? • Are there gender-related differences in attitudes?

  12. Attitudes grades 9-10 Most students positive or neutral. No differences between years except in self confidence. More students 2002 think they are very good at using computers than students 1998. Gender differences: Boys more positive in 1998 in all but one question and all but two questions in 2002. Imp./future.. Exciting to use.. Too much use bad.. Dislike using.. Necessary tools.. Very good at.. Fun to try new.. Fun to use/usef. Often feel bad... Difficult/underst..

  13. Attitudes1998 & 2002gender differences grades 9-10 Imp./future.. Exciting to use.. Too much use bad.. (2 q. in 2002) Dislike using.. Necessary tools.. Very good at using.. Fun to try new.. Fun to use/useful things.. Often feel bad when... Difficult/underst. Techn. Gender Girls Boys

  14. ? Questions - problems ? In 2002? • Do students complain of social and/or physical problems related to computer use? • Are there gender-related differences in problems?

  15. Problems by grade level • Back • Hand/fingers • Elbow/arms • Shoulder/neck • Head/eyes • Other physical p. • Teasing/harassment • Sexual harassment • Monetary fraud • Neg. friendsh./soc. • Neg. effects on learning School level Elementary Middle Upper sec.

  16. Problems by gender in grades 8-10 • Back • Hand/fingers • Elbow/arms • Shoulder/neck • Head/eyes • Other physical p. • Teasing/harassment • Sexual harassment • Monetary fraud • Neg. friendsh./soc. • Neg. effects on learning Gender Girls Boys • ?

  17. Problems by age groups and gender Physical problems Grow with age except pain in elbows and arms. Highest number of students complain about headache & eye problems, next pain in hands/fingers. Gender differences: In middle school more girls than boys complain about pain in hands/fingers, shoulder/neck and head/eyes. Social/psychological/other Less complains than over physical problems. Increase with age except teasing/harassment (in electronic communications). In middle school more girls than boys complain about sexual harassemnt. More boys than girls complain about danger of monetary fraud and potential “addiction.”

  18. ? Questions - use ? Changes from 1998 to 2002 • How much do students claim they use computers • Are there gender-related differences in use?

  19. Computer use at home – % of boys in time spent The higher number of hours students report spending onthe computer every week thehigher % of boys of the totalnumber og children in grades 8-10. Boys are also more likely to indicatehigh computer use among theirpeers/friends than are girls.

  20. Computer use at school and home% reports using computers 2 hours+/week School Home Year Grade/year in school Grade/year in school

  21. How did I use computer last time I used it (grades 8-10 2002)? How long ago? Majority of boys (87%) and girls (76%) used computers less than week ago. For how long? Majority of boys (73%) but about half of girls (50%) used computer more than 30 min. Where? Majority of boys (82%) and girls (73%) used computers in their own home. School came next for the girls (16%) but friends came next for the boys (8%). With whom? Majority of the boys and girls used computers by themselves (70 og 74%) but about 20% with two people; 10% of boys but 5% of girls with more than 2. Do what? Most commonly play (87% boys but 53% girls). 20% of girls but a few % of boys said they had used computers for learning. 12% of girls but 6% of boys had been looking at information/materials. 10% of girls but 1% of boys in electronic communications..

  22. Grades 8-10 Correlation sign: purple = for both girls and boys; blue =for boys only; pink for girls onlybold = highly correlated/significant

  23. ?Questions- important factors? • Which factors correlate with computer-related skills?

  24. Grades 8-10 Correlation sign: purple = for both girls and boys; blue =for boys only; pink for girls onlybold = highly correlated/significant

  25. Comments The studies involved show e.g. the following: • Higher number of students’ skills, more confidence among students. Gender differences appearing later? Computer access much higher at schools and homes and some indicators in schools that they are more ready for development and changes (less traditional methods) and they play a larger role than before in computer-related skills development.

  26. Comments - continued • On the other hand, there are large gender differences in grades 9-10 in relation to skills, attitudes, and computer access at homes. Also, students complain about problems, mostly physical but also social. Computer use varies by school but on average student say they use computers for two hours or more per week only in about two subjects. Besides special ICT/computer classes most commonly used in foreign languages, Icelandic and math. Computer use in schools may not have increased significantly but changed to involve more web use.

  27. Why computers in schoolsShould there be a moratorium? • Letter from a colleague yesterday: • I have just completed an interesting questionnaire which explores views on whether ICT should be an essential element of education and what rationales should drive its use. • The questionnaire was developed in the light of evidence that suggests that a lack of shared understandings (visions) about the reasons for using ICT in education has lead to the huge investments that have been made in 'educational' ICT having had much less impact than anticipated (e.g. Cuban 2001; Twining 2002). This has lead to calls for a moratorium on further investments in ICT in education (e.g. Stoll 2000; Cuban 2001). The questionnaire aims to stimulate and inform the debate about whether ICT should be an essential component of education and the reasons that should underpin the use of ICT in education. • I think you would find the questionnaire interesting. It takes less than 9 minutes to complete, and once you have finished it you can see an analysis of some of the core data that has been collected so far. • You can access the questionnaire from http://www.meD8.info/qqa. • References Cuban (2001) Oversold and Underused: Computers in the Classroom, London:Harvard University Press. Stoll (2000) High-Tech Heretic: Reflections of a computer contrarian, New York: Anchor Books. Twining (2002b) Enhancing the Impact of Investments in Educational ICT, PhD Thesis, Milton Keynes: Open University. http://kn.open.ac.uk/public/document.cfm?documentid=2515 (visited 31.1.03).

  28. Computers at school • Tool vs. delivery system? • Is Cuban focusing too much on computers as delivery system?