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CLASS #1: AP. MIDTERM. CLASS #2: AP/ AdvP. CLASS #3: AdvP , PP. CLASS #4: PP. CLASS #5: ADVERBIALS. CLASS #6: ADVERBIALS. CLASS #7: ADVERBIALS AND MIDTERM OVERVIEW. CLASS #8: MIDTERM OVERVIEW and SIMPLE SENTENCE. CLASS #9: SIMPLE SENTENCE. CLASS #10: SIMPLE SENTENCE.

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slide2

CLASS #1: AP

MIDTERM

CLASS #2: AP/AdvP

CLASS #3: AdvP, PP

CLASS #4: PP

CLASS #5: ADVERBIALS

CLASS #6: ADVERBIALS

CLASS #7: ADVERBIALS AND MIDTERM OVERVIEW

CLASS #8: MIDTERM OVERVIEW and SIMPLE SENTENCE

CLASS #9: SIMPLE SENTENCE

CLASS #10: SIMPLE SENTENCE

CLASS #11: PHONETICS OVERDOSE (NO GEJ)

CLASS #12: GEJ2 OVERDOSE: COMPLEX SENTENCE

CLASS #13: COMPLEX SENTENCE , WRAP-UP & ORAL EXAM HINTS

schedule for the remaining classes
SCHEDULE FOR THE REMAINING CLASSES
  • We have 3 (but it’s actually TWO) classes remaining!
    • May 23 (NEXT WEEK): NO GEJ2 LECTURE > TWO LECTURES IN PHONETICS
    • May 30: TWO GEJ2 LECTURES > WE START AT NOON (WE’LL TALK ABOUT COMPLEX SENTENCES).
    • June 6: TRAINING FOR THE WRITTEN EXAM (examples from previous exams + hints) & TRAINING FOR THE ORAL EXAM (several question combinations from the oral exam + hints, tips and tricks)
the simple sentence

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE

LECTURE #3 – 2012-05-16

review
REVIEW
  • LAST WEEKS AGO WE DISCUSSED:
    • SENTENCE ELEMENTS – SYNTACTICALLY DEFINED (what structures are used to realize a particular sentence element: e.g. Od can be an NP or a nominal clause) > ONLY FINAL NOTES, COMMENTS, ETC.
    • SENTENCE ELEMENTS – SEMANTICALLY DEFINED (what are the possible roles/meanings of each sentence element)
    • CONCORD – grammatical agreement between sentence elements in respect to categories such as person, number and gender.
sentence elements
SENTENCE ELEMENTS

SEMANTICALLY

DEFINED

coordinative apposition
COORDINATIVE APPOSITION
  • This temple of ugliness and memorial to Victorian bad taste was erected in the main street of the city.

BUT:

  • His aged servant and the subsequent editor of his collected papers was with him at his deathbed.
  • His aged servant and the subsequent editor of his collected papers were with him at his deathbed.

SINGULAR IS USED IF THE SERVANT AND THE EDITOR ARE THE SAME PERSON (APPOSITIVE COORDINATION) AND PLURAL IS USED IF THEY ARE TWO DIFFERENT PERSONS (COORDINATION PROPER).

coordinative apposition1
COORDINATIVE APPOSITION
  • This temple of ugliness and memorial to Victorian bad taste was erected in the main street of the city.

BUT:

  • His aged servant and the subsequent editor of his collected paperswas with him at his deathbed.
  • His aged servant and the subsequent editor of his collected paperswere with him at his deathbed.

SINGULAR IS USED IF THE SERVANT AND THE EDITOR ARE THE SAME PERSON (APPOSITIVE COORDINATION) AND PLURAL IS USED IF THEY ARE TWO DIFFERENT PERSONS (COORDINATION PROPER).

coordination with or and nor
COORDINATION WITH OR AND NOR
  • Either the Mayor or her deputy IS (ARE) bound to come.
  • What I say or what I think IS(ARE) no business of yours.
  • Either the strikers of the bosses (HAS) HAVE misunderstood the claim.
  • Either your brakes or your eyesight IS (ARE) at fault.
  • Either your eyesight or your brakes ARE (IS) at fault.

When coordinated items have the same number, there is pure grammatical concord: when they are both singular (1 and 2) the verb is also singular, when they are both plural (3), the verb is also plural.

When coordinated items do not have the same number, English follows the principle of PROXIMITY: whichever phrase comes last determines the number of the verb. (4 and 5).

NOT…BUT and NOT ONLY…BUT behave like EITHER…OR.

indefinite expressions as subject concord
INDEFINITE EXPRESSIONS AS SUBJECT - CONCORD
  • INDEFINITE PRONOUNS (anyone/anybody, no one/nobody, someone/somebody, everyone/everybody) and NOUNS OF DUAL GENDER (student, teacher, lawyer, judge, etc.) can be referred to by personal pronouns in THREE WAYS:
    • UNMARKED HE (now considered sexist): Everyone thinks he has the answer to that question.
    • HE OR SHE (politically correct, but long and clumsy): Someone has to make up his or her mind.
    • THEY (the most politically correct form):

Everyone thinks they or her have the answer.

Nobody called did they.

Every applicant should hand in their application form now.

Nowadays the best choice because of PC.

negation
NEGATION

BASIC INFORMATION

negation1
NEGATION
  • Negation is a LOGICAL OPERATION of implying the opposite or absence of something that is without negation regarded as actual, positive, or affirmative.
general types of negation
GENERAL TYPES OF NEGATION
  • CLAUSE NEGATION – the whole clause is syntactically treated as negative:
    • Rosie's [not an attractive elephant in any respect] (, is she?)
  • LOCAL NEGATION – one constituent/sentence element is negated (often depends on pronunciation):
    • [Nothing] agrees with me more than oysters. LOCAL NEGATION
      • Eating nothing agrees with me more than eating oysters. LOCAL NEGATION
    • [Nothing agrees with me more than oysters]. CLAUSAL NEGATION
      • Oysters agree with me more than anything elseCLAUSE NEGATION
  • PHRASAL NEGATION – one phrase is negated:
    • She gave me [not even a moment] to somehow collect my thoughts.
  • PREDICATION NEGATION – very rare, applies to predication only after certain auxiliaries (usually depends on pronunciation):
    • They may [not go swimming]. [=They are allowed not to go swimming]

NEGATION IS REALIZED THROUGH USE OF NEGATIVE ITEMS.

negative items

Remember them from GEJ1? Those are the words that only appear in nonassertive sentences: any, anybody, yet, either, any longer, much, etc.

NEGATIVE ITEMS
  • NEGATION is RELIZED through NEGATIVE ITEMS.
  • SYNTACTIC BEHAVIOR of NEGATIVE ITEMS:
    • NEGATIVE ITEMS trigger the use of NONASSERTIVE FORMS:
      • John is not coming either.
      • I don’t have many friends.
      • I seldom get any sleep.
    • When NEGATIVE ITEMS are placed in the position BEFORE THE SUBJECT, they can cause a SUBJECT-OPERATOR INVERSION (a.k.a. NEGATIVE INVERSION):
      • Neverhave I seen anything like that before!
      • Seldomhas a truer word been spoken.
    • NEGATIVE ITEMS are followed by POSITIVE QUESTION TAGS:
      • She rarely visits you, does she?
negation via negative items
NEGATION via NEGATIVE ITEMS
  • The clause can be negated:
    • EITHER BY NEGATING THE VERB (VERBAL NEGATION),
    • OR BY NEGATING OTHER SENTENCE ELEMENTS (NON-VERBAL NEGATION).
  • Depending on what sentence element is being negated, it is necessary to use different negative items:
    • VERB NEGATION: the negative particle NOT is always used: He does not drink. She is not a model wife.
    • NEGATION OF OTHER SENTENCE ELEMENTS can be achieved using DIFFERENTNEGATIVE ITEMS:
      • Words negative in form and meaning (NUCLEAR NEGATIVES): no, none, never, not
      • Word negative in meaning only (not negative in form): rarely, seldom, scarcely, barely, little, few
      • VERBS, ADJECTIVE, PREPOSTIONS with IMPLIED NEGATIVE MEANING: refuse, deny, fail; reluctant, unaware; without, against; unless
negation via negative items1
NEGATION via NEGATIVE ITEMS
  • Nuclear negatives (non-verbal explicitly negative items) can be classified into:
      • NEGATIVE PRONOUNS (e.g. in S or O position):
        • Nobodycame. Noneof the passengers were hurt. I saw nothing.
      • NEGATIVE MODIFYING ADVERBS:
        • I felt [nonethe worse] for it. > modifying AP
        • [Not many] people turned up. > modifying DETERMINER
        • [Not even] the president of Pakistan was informed. > modifying ADVERB
      • NEGATIVE DETERMINERS:
        • I expected [noreply]. [Neitherteam manager] was informed.
      • NEGATIVE COORDINATORS:
        • Neithertoday nor tomorrowis suitable.
      • NEGATIVE ADJUNCTS:
        • Elephants never forget. We found nowhereto stay.
negation via negative items2
NEGATION via NEGATIVE ITEMS
  • Negatives with positive-word form (rarely, seldom, scarcely, hardly, little, few, barely, only, etc.) are treated as NEGATIVE FORMS because:
      • THEY ARE FOLLOWED BY NON-ASSERTIVE FORMS:
        • I seldomget ANY sleep.
        • I’ve spoken to hardly ANYONE.
        • Fewchanges in government have EVER taken so many people by surprise.
        • Onlytwo of us had ANY experience in sailing.
      • WHEN THEY ARE PLACED IN THE INITIAL POSITION, THEY CAUSE NEGATIVE INVERSION:
        • Rarely DOES crime PAY so well as Mr Benn seems to think.
        • LittleNEED I DWELL upon the hope that she actually loves me.
      • THEY ARE FOLLOWED BY POSITIVE TAG-QUESTIONS:
        • She scarcely seems to care for you, DOES SHE?
verbal negation vs non verbal negation
VERBAL NEGATION vs. NON-VERBAL NEGATION

ASSERTIVE

NEGATIVE (NON-ASSERTIVE NEGATIVE)

We’ve had some lunch.

He saw one man or the other.

We’ve had some.

We haven’t had any lunch.

We had no lunch.

He didn’t see either man.

He saw neither man. (unusual)

We haven’t had any.

We’ve had none.

verbal negation vs non verbal negation1

OBVIOUSLY, IN THE VAST MAJORITY OF INSTANCES THE SPEAKER HAS A CHOICE BETWEEN USING THE VERBAL NEGATION (VERB+NOT) OR NON-VERBAL NEGATION (NONE, NOTHING, ETC.).

  • HOWEVER, ALTHOUGH THESE TWO FORMS ARE SEMANTICALLY EQUIVALENT, THEY ARE RARELY APPROPRIATE IN THE SAME STYLE OR REGISTER.
  • NON-VERBAL NEGATION IS MUCH MORE FREQUENT IN FORMAL AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE, WHILE VERBAL NEGATION IS MORE INFORMAL.
VERBAL NEGATION vs. NON-VERBAL NEGATION

ASSERTIVE

NEGATIVE (NON-ASSERTIVE NEGATIVE)

He saw one or other of the men.

I’ve bought something for you.

She sometimes visits me.

He didn’t see either of the men.

He saw neither of the men.

I haven’t bought anything for you.

I’ve bought nothing for you.

She doesn’t ever visit me.

She never visits me.

digression multiple negation
DIGRESSION: multiple negation
  • Unlike most other languages, standard national forms of English (BrE, AmE, CaE, AuE, etc.) DO NOT FAVOR MULTIPLE NEGATION.
    • Multiple negation is allowed in SUB-STANDARD varieties of English, e.g. AAVE: Yo, I’m telling you man, nobody ain’tseen nothing.
  • The negative item MUST BE FOLLOWED THROUGHOUT THE REST OF THE CLAUSE BY ONE OR MORE NON-ASSERTIVE ITEMS.\
    • I haven’t said ANYTHING to ANYBODYYET.
digression multiple negation1
DIGRESSION: multiple negation
  • However, even in standard English it is occasionally permissible to have two negations if each negative element negates its own part of the sentence.
    • I ca[n’t] [not obey].
    • [Not many people] have [nowhere to live].
    • [No one] has [nothing to offer to society].
    • [Not many Spaniards] have [no knowledge of bull fighting].
    • [Nobody here] has [never at any time told a lie].
    • Neighbours [should not be] [uncooperative].

THE FACT THAT THESE SENTENCES ARE GRAMMATICAL HAS TO DO WITH SOMETHING CALLED “SCOPE OF NEGATION”

negation scope of negation
NEGATION: SCOPE OF NEGATION
  • The SCOPE OF NEGATION is the stretch of language OVER WHICH THE NEGATIVE MEANING OPERATES AND WHERE NON-ASSERTIVE ITEMS MUST BE USED.
  • The SCOPE OF NEGATION EXTENDS FROM THE NEGATIVE ITEM TO:
    • THE END OF THE CLAUSE (NOT NECESSARILY THE END OF THE SENTENCE),
    • THE END OF THE NEGATED PHRASE (IF ONLY A SINGLE PHRASE IS NEGATED), OR
    • THE BEGINNING OF THE FINAL ADJUNCT.
  • WHY IS THIS SUCH A BIG DEAL?

The POSITION OF THE NEGATIVE ITEM may drastically INFLUENCE THE MEANING OF THE WHOLE SENTENCE:

scope of negation
SCOPE OF NEGATION
  • Nothing agrees with me more than oysters.

= There is nothing else that I like more than oysters.

  • Nothing agrees with me more than oysters.

= I would much rather eat nothing than oysters.

scope of negation1
SCOPE OF NEGATION
  • I definitely didn’t speak to him.

= It is definite that I did not.

  • I didn’t definitely speak to him.

= It is not definite that I did.

scope of negation2
SCOPE OF NEGATION
  • I wasn’t LISTENING all the time.

= For the whole time, I wasn’t listening.

  • I wasn’t listening ALL the time.

= It’s not true that I was listening all the time.

SO, WHEN AN ADJUNCT IS FINAL, IT MAY OR MAY NOT LIE OUTSIDE THE SCOPE OF NEGATION.

scope of negation3
SCOPE OF NEGATION
  • I didn’t listen to some of them.

= There were some of the speakers that I didn’t listen to.

  • I didn’t listen to any of them.

= There were not any speakers that I listened to.

SO, IF AN ASSERTIVE ITEM IS USED IN THE ADJUNCT, THE ADJUNCT MUST LIE OUTSIDE THE SCOPE OF NEGATION.

focus of negation
FOCUS OF NEGATION
  • The FOCUS OF NEGATION is the part of the sentence within the scope of negation that bears special stress. E.g.
  • I didn’t take the <GRAMMAR> exam last week.
  • I didn’t take the grammar <EXAM> last week.
  • I didn’t take the grammar exam <LAST> week.
  • I didn’t take the grammar exam last <WEEK>.
focus of negation add on
FOCUS OF NEGATION – add-on
  • Focus of negation is a SPECIAL/CONTRASTIVE NUCLEAR STRESS which is placed on a particular part of the clause in order to indicate that the contrast of meaning implicit in THE NEGATION IS LOCATED AT THAT SPOT and also that THE REST OF THE CLAUSE CAN BE UNDERSTOOD IN A POSITIVE SENSE.
  • The focus of negation can split the scope of negation so that the scope becomes DISCONTINUOUS.
focus of negation1
FOCUS OF NEGATION
  • I didn’t take Joan to swim in the POOL today.

= I forgot to do so. (FALLING INTONATION)

  • I didn’t take JOAN to swim in the pool today.

= I took Mary instead.

focus of negation2
FOCUS OF NEGATION
  • I didn’t take Joan to SWIM in the pool today.

= I just took her there to see the pool.

  • I didn’t take Joan to swim in the POOL today.

= I took her to the lake instead. (RISING INTONATION)

focus of negation3
FOCUS OF NEGATION
  • I didn’t take Joan to swim in the pool TODAY.

= I took her there last week.

  • I didn’t take Joan to swim in the pool today.

= It was my brother who took her.

scope and focus
SCOPE AND FOCUS
  • Scope and focus of negation are INTERRELATED, such that the scope must include the focus.
  • So, one way of signaling the extent of the scope of negation is by the position of the focus.
  • One example of this is when the scope of negation is atypically extended to include a subordinate clause, with a contrastive fall-rise to emphasize this:
scope and focus1
SCOPE AND FOCUS
  • I didn’t leave HOME because I was afraid of my FATHER.

= Because I was afraid of my father, I didn’t leave home.

  • I didn’t leave home because I was afraid of my FATHER.

= I left home, but it wasn’t because I was afraid of my father.

scope and focus2
SCOPE AND FOCUS
  • She didn’t come to SEE him when he ASKED.

= When he asked, she didn’t come to see him.

  • She didn’t come to see him when he ASKED.

= She came to see him, but not at the time he asked her to come to see him.

the end

THE END

OF SIMPLE SENTENCE.

complex sentence

COMPLEX SENTENCE

INTRODUCTION

classification of sentences
CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES
  • Based on the number and type of clauses in a sentence, there are three types of sentences:
classification of sentences1
CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES
  • SIMPLE SENTENCE = SINGLE INDEPENDENT/MAIN CLAUSE, all sentence elements are realized as phrases:

[The members] [did not know] [the scope of the problem].

S (NP) V (VP) O (NP)

  • COMPLEX SENTENCE = ONE INDEPENDENT/MAIN CLAUSE AND AT LEAST ONE DEPENDENT/SUBORDINATE CLAUSE, at least one sentence element is realized as a clause:

[The members] [know] [that the problem has a wide scope].

S (NP) V (VP) O (clause)

[The members] [knew] [the answer] [when the chairman asked].

S (NP) V (VP) O (NP) (A) (clause)

classification of sentences2
CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES
  • COMPOUND SENTENCE = AT LEAST TWO INDEPENDENT/MAIN CLAUSES:

[She] [took] [the test] [in June] and [she] [passed] [it] [easily].

S (NP) V (VP) O (NP) A (PP) CONJ. S(NP) V (VP) O (NP) (A) (AdvP)

[Mary] [likes] [dogs] but [she] [doesn’t like] [hamsters].

S (NP) V (VP) O (NP) CONJ. S(NP) V (VP) O (NP)

linkers
LINKERS
  • LINKERS are syntactic items which link two syntactic element.
  • Depending on the type of syntactic elements which are linked, linkers can be classified into two groups:
  • CONJUNCTS – they link SENTENCES, e.g.

He studied hard. However, he didn’t pass the exam.

  • CONJUNCTIONS – they link CLAUSES, and according to their function they can be further divided into:
    • Coordinators (and, but, or)
    • Subordinators (if, although, that, when, etc.)
subordination vs coordination
SUBORDINATION vs. COORDINATION
  • Both SUBORDINATION and COORDINATION are processes of linking of at least two syntactic units.
  • However, they are different HIERARCHICALLY:
    • SUBORDINATION: syntactic units being linked are NOT on the same syntactic level.
    • COORDINATION: syntactic units being linked ARE ON THE SAME syntactic level.
  • Why do we talk about SYNTACTIC UNITS and not CLAUSES?
  • Because, both CLAUES and PHRASES can be COORDINATED (but, phrases CANNOT be SUBORDINATED)
subordination of clauses
SUBORDINATION OF CLAUSES
  • SUBORDINATION (← OR →) is a non-symmetrical relation holding between 2 clauses in such a way that one is a constituent of the other (MAIN/MATRIX CLAUSE has SUBORDINATE CLAUSE as ITS CONSTITUENT).
  • They think that she can succeed if she tries hard enough.

S V O

conj. S ------V------ -------------(ADV)----------

conj. S V -----(ADV)-----

THIS MEANS THAT SUBORDINATION IS RECURSIVE:

A subordinate clause itself can have as its constituent another subordinate clause (that she can succeed if she tries hard enough).

subordination of clauses1
SUBORDINATION OF CLAUSES
  • The relationship of subordination can be represented graphically with a TREE DIAGRAM:

They think

that she can succeed

if she tries hard enough

coordination
COORDINATION
  • COORDINATION (↔) is a symmetrical relation holding between 2 clauses which are of EQUAL STATUS.
  • Why do we mention EQUAL STATUS?
  • Because, the two coordinated clauses can be either two MAIN/INDEPENDENT clauses (=COMPOUND sentence), or two SUBORDINATE/DEPENDENT clauses.
coordination1
COORDINATION
  • Coordination of two MAIN/INDEPENDENT clauses:

She took the test and she passed it.

This structure is actually a COMPOUND SENTENCE.

It too, just as a complex sentence, can be represented graphically.

S V ----O---- Conj./Coord. S V O

coordination2
COORDINATION

AND

SHE TOOK THE TEST SHE PASSED IT

coordination3
COORDINATION
  • Coordination of two SUBORDINATE/DEPENDENT clauses:

He said he was worried and that they had to talk.

This structure is actually a COMPLEX SENTENCE.

It too can be represented graphically.

S V ----------------------------- O ------------------------------

S V ----Cs---- Conj./Coord. Sub. S -------V--------

coordination4
COORDINATION

He said

and

that they had to talk

he was worried

the end1
THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME!

CU NEXT WEEK, BUT ONLY IN PRACTICE CLASSES!

THE END
slide65

IT’S ABOUT YOU VOLUNTEERING, SPENDING 20 MINUTES OF YOUR TIME AND TAKING PART IN A GROUND-BREAKING RESEARCH.

slide69

HOWEVER, IT IS NOT NICE TO ASK PEOPLE TO SIGN UP FOR SOMETHING IF THEY DO NOT KNOW WHAT IT IS THAT THEY ARE SIGNING UP FOR…

dubbing vs subtitling
Dubbing vs. Subtitling

However, these statements are IMPRESSIONISTIC, i.e. they are not based on verifiable data.

Expensive

Slow

Less flexible (films, series)

Loss of original dialogue

Pretence to be ‘domestic’

Better for (semi)illiterate, children

Less reduction of text

More manipulation of the original

More calques from the original

Allows overlapping of voices

Repetitive voices for dubbing actors

Respect of original images

Viewer can concentrate on images

Easier to follow

Promotes cinematic illusion

Viewer can follow plot without watching

Lip-sync

One linguistic code

Oral > Oral

Cheap

Fast

More flexible (any programmes)

Respect of original dialogue

Promotes foreign languages

Better for the deaf, hard of hearing and immigrants

More reduction of text

Difficult to manipulate

Less calques

Does not allow overlapping

Original voices maintained

Pollution of images

Distracts from images

More difficult to follow

Can detract from cinema illusion

Viewer needs to watch

Space and time synchrony

Two concurrent linguistic codes

Oral > Written

slide94

I.E. WE WANT TO TEST HOW MUCH (HOW HARD) YOU BRAIN WORKS WHILE BEING EXPOSED TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF AUDIO-VISUAL TRANSLATION (SUBS vs. DUBS)

slide95

THAT WAY WE HOPE TO FINALLY HAVE SCIENTIFICALLY VALID DATA TO VALIDATE (OR REFUTE) CLAIMS THAT SUBTITLING IS MORE PROCESSING INTENSIVE THAN DUBBING FROM THE POINT OF THE VIEWER….

while you re watching the videos we record your brain activity and create your brain s activity map

WHILE YOU’RE WATCHING THE VIDEOS, WE RECORD YOUR BRAIN ACTIVITY AND CREATE YOUR BRAIN’S ACTIVITY MAP.