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Disease of Skin and Eyes Ch 21

Disease of Skin and Eyes Ch 21. Necrotizing fasciitis. Streptococcus pyogenes Causes extensive tissue damage Treatment is Surgical removal of tissue, Penicillin. Invasive Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcal Infections. Streptokinases Hyaluronidase Exotoxin A, superantigen Cellulitis

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Disease of Skin and Eyes Ch 21

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  1. Disease of Skin and EyesCh 21

  2. Necrotizing fasciitis • Streptococcus pyogenes • Causes extensive tissue damage • Treatment is Surgical removal of tissue, Penicillin

  3. Invasive Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcal Infections • Streptokinases • Hyaluronidase • Exotoxin A, superantigen • Cellulitis • Necrotizing fasciitis Figure 21.8

  4. Impetigo • Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes • Superficial skin infection; isolated pustules • Penicillin for Streptococcus infections • Methicillin or cephalosporin for Staphylococcus

  5. Streptococcal Skin Infections • Erysipelas • Impetigo Figure 21.6, 7

  6. Shingles • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) • Vesicles similar to chickenpox; typically on one side of waist, face and scalp, or upper chest • Usualy along dermatome’s. One or 2 • Can cause persistant pain in the affected nerves postherpetic neuralgia • Normal immunity is best • Acyclovir esp for immunocompromised

  7. Boils • Staphylococcal infection • A somewhat larger pus-containing lesions within the dermis. • May cause abscesses that are accumulations of pus that may penetrate into deeper tissues and develop into cellulitis • Can be treated with penicillins • May need to be lanced and foreign body removed.

  8. Acne • Small inflamed papules and pustules • Heal spontaneously within a few days. • When Propionibacterium acnes (anaerobic) produces fatty acids and causes an immune response. • Skin peels reduce the chance of pores bercomming clogged • Tetracyclines can reduce the amount of bacteria

  9. Chicken Pox • Mild disease in children • VZV herpes only in humans. • Oka live attenuated vaccine • With Aspirin can cause Reye’s syndrome • Develop into shingles as an adult • 100 deaths a year

  10. Herpes • Herpes simplex virus type 1 • Large Double stranded DNA virus • Develops latent infection in nerves • Most commonly as cold sores-vesicles around mouth; can also affect other areas of skin and mucous membranes • Fluid in vessels contains virus and is infectious • Acyclovir may modify (reduce)symptoms.

  11. Rubella (German measles) • Rubella virus • Mild disease with a rash resembling measles, but less extensive and disappears in 3 days or less • No treatment. • MMR • Can cause Birth defects and death to undeveloped fetus • May want to screen women of childbearing age for antibodies

  12. Measles (Rubeola) • Measles virus • Transmitted by respiratory route • Macular rash and Koplik's spots • Prevented by vaccination(MMR) at 15mo • Encephalitis in 1 in 1000 cases • Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in 1 in 1,000,000 cases Figure 21.14

  13. Ringworm • Dermatophytes • Infect the bodies outermost surface • Depends on the bodys immune response • Red, weeping, swelling • Topical antifungals • Miconazole • clotrimazole

  14. Scabies • Sarcoptes scabiei a mite • Transferred from person to person or by fomites • Common worldwide • Lives on skin, female burrows into the skin to lay eggs. • Resembles other itchy skin disease, need to look for mites or eggs. • Lasts a long time (7 year itch) • Arachnicide gamma benzene

  15. Disease of the nervous systemCh 22

  16. Meningitis • Neisseria meningitidis • Transferred by respiratory droplets • May live in nose and throat as normal flora • Vaccine does not cover all serotypes • Rapid onset, high fever, stiff nect, headache worsteing, possible agitated behavior similar to drug overdose • Rifampin and Penicillin G

  17. Tetanus • Clostridium tetani • Normal flora of animals some humans. • Neurotoxin made in bacteria in a wound. • Immunization • Stiff muscles

  18. Botulism • Clostridium botulinum • Affects the preipheral nervous system. • Stops release of acetylcholene, resulting in flaccid paralysis • Support of systems untill toxin is neutralized. • Antiserum • Honey a risk in infant botulism

  19. Poliomyelitis • Enterovirus group: polioviruses • Paralysis only in 1% of infected individuals • Multiplies in throat and intestines. • Viremia results in infection of the motor cells of CNS. Killing these cells. • The Sabin oral vaccine is no longer used in the US because of reversions. • Inactivated now used.

  20. Rabies • Family Rhabdoviridae genus Lyssavirus bullet shaped negative-sense RNA • Initially nonspecific compatible with Fluelike illness. (fever, headache and general malaise 10 days to 6 years after infection. • Hydrophobia • Not treatable after symptoms occur death in 100%

  21. Rabies 2 • Treatment: post exposure prophylaxis • Antirabies vaccine and immune globulin injections. • Skunk is the primary reservoir in the bay area.

  22. Trypanosomiasis African Sleeping sickness • Trypanosoma brucie gambiense • Spread by tsetse fly vector • Early symptoms include reduction of physical and mental activity, will move into coma as organism enters CSF. • Treatment,eflornithine (enzyme blocker) • Vaccine is being developed, hampered by antigen variability mainly avoidance.

  23. Crutzfeldt-jakob disease • Spongiform encephalophathies • 200 cases per year in the us, often in families. • Prion-contaminated tissue • Not known. • May be infected blood or tissue

  24. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Figure 22.17a

  25. Disease of Cardiovascular and Lymphatic systemCh 23

  26. Rheumatic fever • Group a beta hemolytic streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes) • Autoimmune condition; repeated streptococcal infections result in antibodies that damage the heart valve tissue. • Reason that strep throat is vigorously treated. • Still sensitive to Penicillin.

  27. Yellow Fever • Fiver chills and headache followed by nausea and vomiting. Followed by jaundice. • Mortality rate 20% • Viral hemorrhagic fever carried by mosquito • Monkey are a reservoir but human-human is mostly how it happens. • Live attenuated viral vaccine

  28. Anthrax • Symptoms vary according to portal of entry • Cutaneous • Gastrointestinal • Inhallational (pulmonary) most deadly • Mild fever, coughing and some chest pain. • Mild symptoms not usually responded to • Progresses to septic shock in 2-3 days • Antibiotics if administered on time.

  29. Gangrene

  30. Lyme Disease

  31. Tularemia

  32. Relapsing Fever

  33. Infectious mononucleosis

  34. Malaria • Plasmodium • A mosquito-borne disease common to hot climates, characterized by fever and chills at intervals may be fatal in small children. • Working on vaccine.

  35. Elephantitis • Student talk

  36. Schistosomiasis • Schistosoma spp • Eggs produced by schistosomes lodge in tissue and induce damaging inflammation.

  37. Ebola

  38. Disease of the Respiratory SystemCh 24

  39. Strep throat • Streptococcus pyogenes • Inflame Mucous membranes of the throat

  40. Pneumonia

  41. Pneumonic Plague

  42. Diphtheria

  43. Pertussis

  44. Tuberculosis

  45. Legionellosis • Legionella pneumophila • Potentially fatal pneumonia that tends to affect older males who drink or smoke heavily. Pathogen grows in water such as air-conditioning towers and shower heads.

  46. Influenza • Influenzavirus many types • Characterized by chills, fever, headache, and muscular aches. Virus changes antigenic character rapidly, so there is limited immunity following recovery. • 10-20k Americans die a year. • Transferred from humans to animals • Usually from the orient.

  47. Histoplasmosis • Histoplasma capsulatum • Fungal pathogen grows in soil, esp if contaminated with bird droppings. Widespread in Ohio and Mississippi river valleys; occasionally fatal.

  48. Colds • Rhinoviruses, Coronaviruses • Young average 4 per year. • Isolate populations develop group immunity. • Sneezing excessive nasal secretion. • Usually not accompanied by fever • Last about a week. OCD’s do not reduce this

  49. Diseases of the Digestive systemCh 25

  50. Food poisoning • Staphylococcus aureus Exotoxins • Toxin causes rapid onset of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea

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