Lecture # 19 Interior Air Quality
Florida Cities Urban Density/60 Cities Density City people / sq. mile Rank Ft. Lauderdale 4,747 19 St. Petersburg 4,059 24 Orlando 2,148 48 Jacksonville 837 59 Range 23,369 714
Florida Cities and Rank: 75 Largest Metro Areas Metro Area Population Rank Miami-Ft. Laud.- Hollywood 3,192,582 11 Tampa- St. Pet.- Clearwater 2,067,959 20 Orlando 1,072,748 35 Jacksonville 906,727 46 West Palm Beach- Boca Raton - Delray Beach 863,518 49 Range 17,953,372 659,864
Florida Cities and Rank: Moderate Air Pollution Days/75 Cities City Number of Days Rank Tampa 119 46 Jacksonville 84 64 Orlando 79 66 Miami 51 72 West Palm Beach 29 74 Range 304 3
What Is Air Pollution ? The presence of chemicals / physical particles in the atmosphere that exceed harmless levels. * Acid rain, smog, toxic air pollutants, suspended particles.
Examples of Air Pollutants 1 . Ethylene (C2H2) 2. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) 3. Ozone (O3) 4. Carbon monoxide (CO) 5. Carbon dioxide (CO2) 6. Nitrogen oxides (Nox) 7. Ammonia (NH3) 8. Peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) 9. Volatile Organic Chemicals (VOCs) 10. Particulates (Dust)
Gases and Interiorscape Plants • The essential gases (O2, CO2, NO2) are involved in plant metabolism. • Interiorscape plants may purify air and remove harmful gases from the environment.
Gases and Interiorscape Plants • Some gaseous pollutants are highly toxic to plants. • Plants are potential air polluters and emit gases into the atmosphere.
Air Pollutants Affecting Interiorscape Plants • Injury can range from visible damage on foliage to reduced growth, yield, quality, life, and usefulness of the plant, and to premature death.
Air Pollutants Affecting Interiorscape Plants • The severity of the injury depends on: • concentration of air pollutant • duration of exposure • plant’s genetic makeup • plant species and age • stage of plant development • plant’s nutritional status • abiotic factors • humidity • light levels • temperature • season of year
Air Pollutant: Sulfur dioxide Injury: Chronic - does not usually kill the tissues; results from low levels of pollution. Acute - kills all or a portion of the leaf; results from a short - term, high levels of pollution.
Air Pollutant: Sulfur dioxide Symptoms: Bleached spots, bleached areas between veins, giving the “classic” SO2 symptom of tan-to-ivory brown areas between green veins; needle-like leaves turn yellow to brown if injury is acute.
Sulfur Dioxide Emissions (USA) Million tons per year
Air Pollutant: Nitrogen Oxides Injury: Irregular white or brown collapsed lesion on interveinal tissue and near leaf margin.
Air Pollutant: Nitrogen Oxides Sources: High temperature combustion of coal, oil, gas, and gasoline in power plants and internal combustion engines. Toxicity Levels (ppm): Plants - 0.50 - 25.0 People - 5.0
Nitrogen Oxides Emissions (USA) Million tons per year
Examples of Volatile Organic Chemicals (VOCs) 1. Methanol - used as solvent, cleaner and as a fuel. 2. Toluene - used in making perfumes, dyes, medicine, explosives, detergents, and in airplane gasoline. 3. Ammonia - used in making fertilizers, plastics, dyes, and textiles.
Examples of Volatile Organic Chemicals (VOCs) 4. Acetone - used as a solvent. 5. Methyl chloroform - used as a cleaning solvent. 6. Xylenes - used in making dyes, drugs, insecticides, and gasoline. 7. Methylene chloride - used in food, furniture and plastic processing.
Volatile Organic Compound Emissions (USA) Million tons per year
Air Pollutant: Ozone Injury and Symptoms: Chronic - needle-like lvs. Show mottled green and yellow patches of tissue on the needle surface. Acute - the entire needle may turn brown. Broadleaved plants show very small ‘flecks’ or ‘stipples’ of dead (brown) or pigmentd (red or purple) tissue on the upper surface; there is seldom any injury on the lower leaf surface.
Air Pollutant: Ozone Toxicity Levels (ppm): Plants - 0.08 - 0.55 People - 0.10 - 0.90
Air Pollutant: Ozone Sources: Natural component of upper atmosphere; filters out UV radiation; lightning can create it at ground level. Major source is the urban environment - hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen are emitted from automotive exhaust systems; these compounds undergo photochemical reaction yielding ozone. In interiors a common source is sparking or arcing electric motors.
Carbon Monoxide Emissions (USA) Million tons per year
Total Particulates Emissions (USA) Million tons per year
Air Pollutant: Carbon dioxide Symptoms: Temporary elevation of plant growth rate. Sources: Combustion of hydrocarbons (wood, gas, fuel oil). Toxicity Levels (ppm): Plants - 20,000 People - 5,000
Air Pollutant: Carbon dioxide ‘Greenhouse Effect’ Global Warming
Air Pollutant: Ethylene Sources: Man’s activities: incomplete combustion of coal, gas, and oil for heating, and automobile and truck exhaust. Natural occurrence: injured tissues, ripened fruits. Toxicity Levels (ppm): Plants - 0.01 - 0.10
Observed Responses of Nursery Crops to Ethylene Exposure • Abscission of flowers. • Abscission of foliage. • Chlorosis of foliage. • Epinasty of foliage.
Ethylene • Ethylene has an autocatalytic activity, it induces the enzyme ACC synthase. • Auxins also do this. • Wounding increases ethylene production by inducing formation of ACC synthase.
METHIONINE ENERGY SAM (S-adenosyl methionine) ENERGY (ATP) ACC 1-Amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid ACC Synthase Synthesis of Endogenous Ethylene ETHYLENE
Air Pollutant: Ammonia Sources: Biological processes; industry and urban activities, refrigerators. Injury: Blackened and collapsed tissue. Initially, leaves may develop water-soaked appearance. Lower concentrations of NH3 produce light tan to dark brown bronzing on upper leaf surface and dark brown irregular, interveinal lesions extending through the leaf.
Air Pollutant: Ammonia Toxicity Levels (ppm): Plants - > 1.25
Air Pollutant: Chlorine (Cl) and Hydrogen Chloride Sources: Chlorinating equipment for swimming pools; sewage and industrial operations. Symptoms: General leaf yellowing, stippling, scorching of leaf tips and margins, necrosis and leaf drop. Injury is first observed on the mature leaves. Toxicity Levels (ppm): Plants - 0.05 - 0.10
Air Pollutant: Fluorine (F), Hydrogen Fluoride (HF), Silicon Tetrafluoride (SiF4) Sources: Growing media, superphosphate (fertilizer), perlite. Industry, coal combustion, volcanic eruptions, refineries, plastic manufacturing. Injury:Dependent on the accumulation of fluoride to toxic levels. Gray or light green water-soaked lesions which turn tan to reddish brown. Toxicity Levels for HF: Plants - 1 ppb
Air Pollutant: Peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) Sources: The action of sunlight on hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides released from automobile exhaust.
Air Pollutant: Peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) Injury: Plant tissue surrounding the stomates plasmolyzes and dies. Enlarged, air-filled spaces develop beneath the lower epidermis resulting in a silvery appearance known as “silver leaf” or “leaf banding”.
Air Pollutant: Peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) Continued: Early maturity, growth suppresion, heavy leaf abscission, bleaching, streaking, speckling, or anthocyanin formation may also occur.
Air Pollutant: Mercury (Hg) Vapors Sources: Greenhouse paint containing di-(phenylmercuric) dodecenylsuccinate; fungicides - mercury bichloride, organic and inorganic mercury compounds. Symptoms: Yellow, brown, purplish and black leaves; curving downward and severe abscission of older leaves.
Pollutant : Benzene Symptoms: Skin and eye irritant, may be a contributing factor to chromosomal aberrations and leukemia in humans; chronic exposure to even relatively low levels causes headaches, appetite loss, drowsiness, nervousness, psychological disturbances, anemia, bone marrow disease; it is considered a carcinogenic.
Pollutant : Benzene Sources: Inks, oils, paints, plastics, rubber, dyes, detergents, gasoline, pharmaceuticals, tobacco smoke, synthetic fibers.
Pollutant : Formaldehyde Symptoms: Irritates mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, throat, can cause contact dermatitis; irritation of upper respiratory tract and eyes and headaches; can cause asthma and is suspected of causing a rare type of throat cancer.
Pollutant : Formaldehyde Sources: Foam insulation, plywood, particle board, pressed-wood products, grocery bags, waxed papers, facial tissue; water repellants, fire retardants, carpet backing, permanent press clothing; cigarette smoke, natural gas, kerosene.
Pollutant : Trichloroethylene Symptoms: Considered a potent liver carcinogen by the National Cancer Institute. Sources: Primarily used in the metal degreasing and dry-cleaning industries; also in printing inks, paints, lacquers, varnishes, adhesives.
Synergistic Effect of Air Pollutants Can Cause More Severe Injury Than Any Pollutant Alone
Vegetation Injury From Other Agents Can Be Confused with Air Pollutant Injury
Now You Are Convinced That Air Pollutants Is Having An Adverse Effect On Plants. How Can You Be Certain? Answer One: Look for some of the same sort of symptoms associated with diseases and physiological problems you are familiar. Answer Two: Let some of your more sensitive plants act as ‘biological indicators’.
SICK BUILDING SYNDROME Occurrence: Tightly sealed, energy - efficient buildings; recently constructed buildings. Symptoms: Headaches, watery eyes, nausea, skin disorders and fatigue. Signs of sick building: Musty, stuffy smell and other lingering odors.
SICK BUILDING SYNDROME Causes: Excessive moisture or humidity, improper location of vapor retarders, poor HVAC design and maintenance, poor duct design, improper carpets, and poor air circulation. Persistence: Symptoms usually disappear a few hours after the person leaves the building.
Building Related Illnesses • Result in serious indoor air quality ( IAQ ) problems. • Persist even after the person is removed from the causal factors.