CHEMICAL BONDING. Cocaine. Chemical bonds in matter, Holding atoms together, How are they formed? This I wonder, Let us turn the pages and find the answer. By the end of this chapter, you should be able to :. u nderstand the formation of compounds
Chemical bonds in matter,
Holding atoms together,
How are they formed? This I wonder,
Let us turn the pages and find the answer.
Atoms of other elements tend to achieve the stable electron arrangement through the formation of chemical bonds
Ionic bond – electron from Na is transferred to Cl, this causes a charge imbalance in each atom. The Na becomes(Na+) and the Cl becomes(Cl-), charged particles or ions.
Covalent bonds- Two atoms share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons.
Oxygen Molecule (O2)
A hydrogen atom has one valence electron. It needs one more electron to achieve the duplet arrangement. Therefore, two hydrogen atoms contribute one electron each for sharing. This shared-pair of electrons forms a single bond in the hydrogen molecule, H₂
O: + :O ----> O::O or O=O
An oxygen atom, which has six valence electrons, needs two electrons to achieve the octet electron arrangement. Thus, two oxygen atoms share two pairs of electrons, forming a double bond
Each nitrogen atom has the electron arrangement of 2.5. It needs three more electrons to attain the octet electron arrangement. Therefore, they share three pairs of electrons to form a nitrogen molecule, N₂
Draw the Lewis dot structures for the following compounds: