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CHEMICAL BONDING. Cocaine. Chemical bonds in matter, Holding atoms together, How are they formed? This I wonder, Let us turn the pages and find the answer. By the end of this chapter, you should be able to :. u nderstand the formation of compounds

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chemical bonding


Chemical bonds in matter,

Holding atoms together,

How are they formed? This I wonder,

Let us turn the pages and find the answer.

by the end of this chapter you should be able to
By the end of this chapter, you should be able to :
  • understand the formation of compounds
  • synthesis ideas on the formation of ionic bonds
  • synthesis ideas on the formation of covalent bonds
  • analyze properties of ionic and covalent compounds
take note on
Take note on:
  • Formation of Compounds
  • Ionic Bonds
  • Covalent Bonds
  • The Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds
  • Practices
electron distribution in molecules

G. N. Lewis

1875 - 1946

Electron Distribution in Molecules
  • Electron distribution is depicted withLewis (electron dot) structures
  • This is how you decide how many atoms will bond covalently! (In ionic bonds, it was decided with charges)

Atoms of other elements tend to achieve the stable electron arrangement through the formation of chemical bonds




Single Bond

Triple Bond



Double Bond

ionic bond
Ionic Bond
  • Between atoms of metals and nonmetals with very different electronegativity
  • Bond formed by transfer of electrons
  • Produce charged ions all states. Conductors and have high melting point.
  • Examples; NaCl, CaCl2, K2O

Ionic bond – electron from Na is transferred to Cl, this causes a charge imbalance in each atom. The Na becomes(Na+) and the Cl becomes(Cl-), charged particles or ions.

covalent bond
Covalent Bond
  • Between nonmetallic elements of similar electronegativity.
  • Formed by sharing electron pairs
  • Stable non-ionizing particles, they are not conductors at any state
  • Examples; O2, CO2, C2H6, H2O, SiC

Covalent bonds- Two atoms share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons.

Oxygen Atom

Oxygen Atom

Oxygen Molecule (O2)

single bond
Single Bond


  • Formed when a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms

A hydrogen atom has one valence electron. It needs one more electron to achieve the duplet arrangement. Therefore, two hydrogen atoms contribute one electron each for sharing. This shared-pair of electrons forms a single bond in the hydrogen molecule, H₂

double bond
Double Bond
  • Formed when two atoms shared two pairs of electrons

O: + :O ----> O::O or O=O

An oxygen atom, which has six valence electrons, needs two electrons to achieve the octet electron arrangement. Thus, two oxygen atoms share two pairs of electrons, forming a double bond

triple bond
Triple Bond
  • Formed when three pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms

Each nitrogen atom has the electron arrangement of 2.5. It needs three more electrons to attain the octet electron arrangement. Therefore, they share three pairs of electrons to form a nitrogen molecule, N₂



Draw the Lewis dot structures for the following compounds:









for the next class please read on topic electrochemistry
For the next class, please read on topic electrochemistry….

Thank You…