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agrarian - referring to the culture of agricultural communities and the type of tenure system that determines access to land and the kind of cultivation practices employed. agricultural origins - widely accepted theory that agriculture began in the fertile crescent of modern day Southwest Asia.
agrarian - referring to the culture of agricultural communities and the type of tenure system that determines access to land and the kind of cultivation practices employed
agricultural origins- widely accepted theory that agriculture began in the fertile crescent of modern day Southwest Asia
agriculture the purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber
animal domestication – genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
primary economic activities – economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment – such as fishing, mining, lumbering and esp agriculture
secondary economic activities - economic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products. the manufacturing sector
tertiary economic activities- economic activity associated with the provision of services – such as transportation, banking, retailing, education and routine office jobs
quaternary economic activities-service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital. examples – finance, administration, insurance and legal
quinary economic activities – service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill. Examples – scientific research, high level management
extensive subsistence agriculture -farming consisting of activities that only produce enough food for survival and use large areas of land; small use of land for a span of time with successive areas being farmed until no longer productive, may involve the use of slash and burn technology
First Agricultural Revolution - dating back 10,000 years; achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
food chain - describes the feeding relationships between species in an ecological community
growing season - the period of each year when crops can be grown. It is usually determined by climate and crop selection. Depending on the location, temperature, daylight hours (photoperiod), and rainfall, may all be critical environmental factors
hunting-gathering – killing of wild game or collection of nuts, seeds, roots or plants that have not been cultivated for the purpose of sustenance
intensive subsistence agriculture - agricultural system involving the application of large amounts of labor per unit of cultivated land producing food production for local consumption and not trade
livestock ranching – the raising of domesticated animals for the production of meat and other by products such as leather and wool
milpa - crop-growing system used throughout Mesoamerica; involves 2 years of cultivation and eight years of letting the area lie fallow.
nomadic herding/pastoralism – one type of subsistence agriculture based on herding domestic animals; includes daily movement and seasonal migration of herds; relies on the intensive management of herd animals for their primary products of meat and skin, and for their secondary products such as wool or hair, milk, blood, dung, traction, and transport
planned economy – system of production of goods and services usually consumed or distributed by a governmental agency, in quantities at prices and in locations determined by governmental program.
plant domestication – genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
plantation agriculture – production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family of corporation organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established to within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives
Carl O. Sauer – identified 11 areas where agricultural innovations occurred
Second Agricultural Revolution – dovetailing with and benefitting from the Industrial Revolution, the second agriculture revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting and storage of farm products
shifting cultivation – cultivation of crops in tropical rain forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. These clearings are usually abandoned after a few years in favor of newly cleared forestland
slash-and- burn -cultivation of crops in tropical rain forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. These clearings are usually abandoned after a few years in favor of newly cleared forestland
specialization - individual workers or industries specialize for functions such as building construction or gasoline transport. In both cases, specialization enables the accomplishment of otherwise unattainable goals. It also reduces the ability of individuals to survive outside of the system containing all of the specialized components
staple grains - a food that forms the basis of the diet of the people of a particular country or region or of a particular animal
sustainable yield – the yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, i.e. the surplus required to maintain services at the same or increasing level over time
swidden – a place temporarily cleared for agriculture by cutting back and burning off previous growth
crop rotation – annual alteration of crops that make differential demands on or contributions to soil fertility
cultivationregions - an area suited by climate and soil conditions to the cultivation or growing of a certain type of crop. Most crops are cultivated not in one place only, but in several distinct regions in diverse parts of the world. Growing regions, because of the need for climate consistency, are usually oriented along general latitudes, and in the United States these are often called "belts".
dairying - the business of producing, processing, and distributing milk and milk products
Mediterranean agriculture – specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry-summer of Mediterranean climate prevails
transhumance –a seasonal periodic movement of pastoralist and their livestock between highland and low land pastures
agricultural landscape - reflects the cadastral system of land ownership, the influence of farming on how an area looks
agricultural location model – a model that explains the location of agricultural activities in a commercial, profit making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market
collective farm – in the former soviet planned economy, the cooperative operation of an agricultural enterprise under the state control of production and market, but without full status or support as a state enterprise
debt-for-nature swap - tools used to encourage natural area preservation in third world countries while assisting the country economically as well: in exchange for setting aside land, some of the country's foreign debt is forgiven.
double cropping – (also see multiple cropping) a second crop is planted after the first has been harvested
extractive industry – primary activities involving the mining and quarrying of non-renewable metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources
intertillage – practice of mixing different seeds and seedlings in the same swidden
market gardening – (also called horticultural and truck farming) intensive production of fruits and vegetables for market rather than for processing or canning
mineral fuels any of the fuels derived from decayed organic material converted by earth processes; especially, coal, petroleum and natural gas, but also including tar sands and oil shales
mining - the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth
dispersed rural settlement patterns – people live quite far apart and the surrounding land is intensively cultivated by machine
nucleated rural settlement patterns - also known as clustered settlement where people live close to one another in villages and land surrounding the settlement does not contain dwellings
building material rural settlement patterns - the evidence of social stratification and differentiation in a village or settlement based on the type, cost and availability of goods used in construction