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Environment & Ecology. 001 Introduction. Environment – the natural world that we live in and interact with. Environment. Ecology – the study of the interaction of organisms with their environments. Ecology.

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slide1

Environment & Ecology

001 Introduction

slide4
The word "ecology" coined from Greek word "oikos", which means "house" or "place to live”.

Ecology

slide5

Ecology

It involves understanding biotic and abiotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of living things.

biotic factors
Biotic Factors

Biotic factorsare all the living things or their materials that directly or indirectly affect an organism in its environment.

Some Biotic Factors

  • Parasitism
  • Disease
  • Predation
  • Food availability
  • Habitat availability
  • Competitors
  • Symbiotic Relationships
slide7

Abiotic Factors

Abiotic factorsare the nonliving things in an environment.

Some Abiotic Factors

  • pH
  • Temp
  • Nitrates
  • Rainfall
  • Climate Conditions
  • Natural disasters
  • Salinity
  • O2 levels
fig 52 2

Organism

Population

Community

Ecosystem

Landscape

Biosphere

Studies in Environment & Ecology

Fig. 52-2

slide9

Population

  • A population is all the members of a given species in a given area.

Example - All the green turtles in Kaneohe Bay

community
Community
  • Community - all the species in a given area. Example - all the living things in Kaneohe Bay
environment
Environment
  • Environment – encompasses the interaction between the living and nonliving world in a particular geographic area.
niche
Niche
  • A plant's or animal's niche is a way of life that is unique to that species.
  • Niche and habitat are not the same. While many species may share a habitat, this is not true of a niche. Each plant and animal species is a member of a community.
  • The niche describes the species' role or function within this community.
niche1
Niche
  • Moray eel’shabitat might include coral reefs, coral rubble, and caves, is shared with many animals .
  • The niche is that of a predator.
  • Only the moray occupies this niche in the coral reef community. However, a different species of animal may occupy a similar niche to that of the moray.
slide14

Niche

What niche does the Hawaiian Cleaner Wrasse fill?

slide15

Niche

What niche does the Ewa blenny fill?

slide16

Niche

No two animals can occupy the same niche at the same time.

Result = competition

slide17

Environmental Science

An interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical and biological sciences, (including physics, chemistry, biology, soil science, geology, and geography) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.

Environmentalism

A social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world from undesirable changes brought about by human actions.

slide18

Environmental Ethics

A process of applying a set of ethical standards to the relationships between human and nonhuman entities.

slide19

Sustainable Ethics

  • The earth has a limited supply of resources.
  • Humans must conserve resources.
  • Humans share the earth's resources with other living things.
  • Growth is not sustainable.
  • Humans are a part of nature.
  • Humans are affected by natural laws.
  • Humans succeed best when they maintain the integrity of natural processes sand cooperate with nature.
slide20

Environmental Ethics

Anthropocentrism

Cost-benefit analysis

  • Loggers
  • Nuclear Power
  • Oil Companies
  • Hydroelectric plants
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Environmental Ethics

Ecocentrism

Nature has moral consideration

because it has intrinsic value, value aside from its usefulness to humans.

http://www.malamahawaii.org/

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Environmental Ethics

Ecocentrism10

Voluntary Human Extinction Movement

http://www.vhemt.org/

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Environmentalists

Alfred Leopold- wildlife ecology

John Muir

Rachel Carson

Chico Mendes- Brazil

Wangari Maathai- green belt S. Africa

slide25

Environmental Justice

Fair and equitable treatment of all people with respect to environmental policy and practice, regardless of their income, race or ethnicity.

slide26

Ecological Footprint

http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/ind_calculator.html

slide27

Sustainable Solutions

How would you address the following concerns?

  • Energy demands
  • Water use
  • Population
  • Land management
  • Waste management
slide30

Recent Extinctions

Yangtze river dolphin

2007

Tasmanian Tiger 1936

Golden toad 2007

West African Black Rhino

2006

Steller’s sea cow

~1770

Who’s next?

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Deforestation

Indigenous cultures

slide39

Natural Disasters

Hurricane Katrina (2005)

slide40

Natural Disasters

Earthquakes/Tsunami

Indonesia

2005

Haiti 2010

Chile 2010

Japan 2011

slide42

Rapa Nui

  • Polynesians arrived 700 AD, sailing from the west.
  • They lived an isolated existence for the next thousand years
slide44

Ecological Disaster

  • Rapa Nui (Easter Island)
    • Isolated Pacific island with poor soil and little water
    • Originally covered by Chilean Wine Palms
    • No native edible plants
    • Rich in seafood and nesting animals
slide45

Ecological Disaster

  • Rapa Nui (Easter Island)
    • Settled by 25-50 Polynesians in 5th century
    • Survived easily on seafood, chickens, bananas, taro and yams, plenty of free time
    • Developed elaborate competition between clans with moai (statues)
  • Civilization peaked at 1550, with population of ~12000
slide46

Carrying Capacity

  • Rapa Nui (Easter Island)
    • Reached by a Dutch ship in 1722
      • Found about 2,000 people living in caves
      • Primitive society, constant warfare
    • Rapa Nui’s carrying capacity had been drastically lowered by society’s actions:
      • Transportation of moai had required cutting down trees
      • Erosion of soil made yams scarce
      • Lack of canoes made fishing difficult and escape impossible
slide48
Moai
  • Ancestor worship
  • With their backs to the sea they could inspire and protect the Islanders.
  • Moai carving and transport were in full swing from 1400 to 1600, just 122 years before first contact with European visitors to the island.
the cost of the moai
The Cost of the Moai
  • The Moai took a tremendous amount of natural resources and human energy
  • Movement required human energy, ropes, wooden sledges, lifting logs and/or rollers.
  • There are nearly 900 moai in various stages of completion, some stones weighed 80t, and were transported 16km from the quarry.
slide50

Catastrophe

  • Archaeological evidence includes:
    • disappearance of trees
    • disappearance the island's bird life
    • disappearance of evidence of people eating porpoise and tuna.
    • wooden carvings of emaciated people
    • the appearance of a new implement - spear tips.
stone tools
Stone Tools

chisels

Fish hooks

knives

rapa nui s lesson
Rapa Nui’s Lesson

The islanders carried out for us the experiment of permitting unrestricted population growth, profligate use of resources, destruction of the environment and boundless confidence in their religion to take care of the future. The result was an ecological disaster leading to a population crash … Do we have to repeat the experiment on a grand scale? … Is the human personality always the same as that of the person who felled the last tree?

Paul Bahn and John Flenley,

Easter Island, Easter Island 1992

question review
QUESTION: Review

The term “environment” includes:

Living things, such as animals and plants

Non-living things, such as rivers and soil

Buildings and cities

All of the above are included in this term

question review1
QUESTION: Review

A Neo-Malthusian would say that predicted massive human starvation has not yet occurred because:

Diseases have been eradicated

Enough people are dying from war and conflict

Agriculture has postponed massive starvation

People are too dumb to limit their population growth

question review2
QUESTION: Review

Which of the following is correct about the term “environmentalism”?

It involves pursuing knowledge to understand the natural world.

It is a social movement to protect the environment.

It usually does not include advocacy for the environment.

It requires trying to remain objective.

question review3
QUESTION: Review

An anthropocentric worldview would consider the impact of an action on:

a) Plants only

b) Animals only

c) Humans only

d) All living things

e) All non-living things

question review4
QUESTION: Review

Which ethic holds that resources should be wisely used?

a) Preservation ethic

b) Land ethic

c) Conservation ethic

d) Deep ecology

e) Biocentrism

question review5
QUESTION: Review

What is the definition of “sustainable development”?

Using resources to benefit future generations, even if it means lower availability now

Letting future generations figure out their own problems

Letting each country decide what is its best interest

Using resources to satisfy current needs without compromising future availability

question weighing the issues
QUESTION: Weighing the Issues

Which do you think is the best way to protect commonly owned resources (i.e., air, water, fisheries)?

Sell the resource to a private entity

Let organizations themselves decide if they want to participate in protecting the resource

Enact governmental regulations

Do nothing and see what happens

question weighing the issues1
QUESTION: Weighing the Issues

Do you think the rest of the world can have an ecological footprint as large as the footprint of the United States?

Yes, because we will find new technologies and resources to overcome environmental problems.

Yes, because the footprint of the United States is not really that large compared to other countries.

Definitely not. The world does not have that many resources.

It does not matter. It’s not that important.

question interpreting graphs and data
QUESTION: Interpreting Graphs and Data

According to this graph, what has happened to the population over the last 500 years?

a) It has grown enormously.

b) It has grown slower than food production.

c) It has decreased.

d) It has slowed down recently.