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50 Years of “Not-Fighting”. The Cold War. “It was a Cold War of words -- a time when nations were rallied by stirring speeches and trembled by ominous warnings.”. Billy Joel condenses the Cold War in under five minutes. “We Didn’t Start the Fire”. “We Didn’t Start the Fire”.

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slide2

“It was a Cold War of words -- a time when nations were rallied by stirring speeches and trembled by ominous warnings.”

we didn t start the fire1
“We Didn’t Start the Fire”
  • Joel explained that he wrote this song due to his interest in history. He commented that he would have wanted to be a history teacher had he not become a rock and roll singer.
slide5
1949
  • Harry S. Truman
  • Doris Day
  • Red China
  • Johnny Ray
  • South Pacific
  • Walter Winchell
  • Joe Dimaggio
slide6
1950
  • Joe McCarthy
  • Richard Nixon
  • Studebaker
  • Television
  • North Korea
  • South Korea
  • Marilyn Monroe
slide7
1951
  • Rosenburg
  • H-Bomb
  • Sugar Ray
  • Panmunjom
  • Brando
  • The King and I
  • The Catcher in the Rye
slide8
1952
  • Eisenhower
  • Vaccine
  • England’s got a new Queen
  • Marciano
  • Liberace
  • Santayana good-bye
chorus
Chorus
  • We didn't start the fire  It was always burning,  Since the world's been turning.  We didn't start the fire  Well we didn't light it,  But we tried to fight it.
slide10
1953
  • Joseph Stalin
  • Malenkov
  • Nasser
  • Prokofiev
  • Rockefeller
  • Campanella
  • Communist Bloc
slide11
1954
  • Roy Cohn
  • Juan Peron
  • Tosconini
  • Dacron
  • Dien Ben Phu falls
  • Rock Around the Clock
slide12
1955
  • Einstein
  • James Dean
  • Brooklyn’s got a winning team
  • Davy Crockett
  • Peter Pan
  • Elvis Presley
  • Disneyland
slide13
1956
  • Bardot
  • Budapest
  • Alabama
  • Kruschehev
  • Princess Grace
  • Peyton’s Place
  • Trouble in the Suez
chorus1
Chorus
  • We didn't start the fire  It was always burning,  Since the world's been turning.  We didn't start the fire  Well we didn't light it,  But we tried to fight it.
slide15
1957
  • Little Rock
  • Pasternok
  • Mickey Mantle
  • Kerouac
  • Sputnik
  • Chou En-Lai
  • Bridge on the River Kwai
slide16
1958
  • Lebanon
  • Charles de Gaulle
  • California Baseball
  • Starkweather Homicide
  • Children of the Thalidomide
slide17
1959
  • Buddy Holly
  • Ben Hur
  • Space Monkeys
  • Mafia
  • Hula Hoops
  • Castro
  • Edsel is a no go
slide18
1960
  • U-2
  • Syngman Rhee
  • Payola
  • Kennedy
  • Chubby Checker
  • Psycho
  • Belgians in Congo
chorus2
Chorus
  • We didn't start the fire  It was always burning,  Since the world's been turning.  We didn't start the fire  Well we didn't light it,  But we tried to fight it.
slide20
1961
  • Hemingway
  • Eichmann
  • Stranger in a Strange Land
  • Dylan
  • Berlin
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion
slide21
1962
  • Lawrence of Arabia
  • British Beatlemania
  • Ole Miss
  • John Glenn
  • Liston beats Patterson
slide22
1963
  • Pope Paul
  • Malcolm X
  • British Politician Sex
  • JFK blown away
chorus3
Chorus
  • We didn't start the fire  It was always burning,  Since the world's been turning.  We didn't start the fire  Well we didn't light it,  But we tried to fight it.
1964 1989
Birth Control

Ho Chi-Minh

Richard Nixon back again

Moonshot

Woodstock

Watergate

Punk Rock

Begin

Reagan

Palestine

Terror on the airlines

Ayatollahs in Iran

Russians in Afghanistan

Wheel of Fortune

Sally Ride

Heavy Metal Suicide

Foreign debt

Homeless vets

AIDS

Crack

Bernie Goetz

Hypodermics on the shore

China’s under Martial Law

Rock and Roller Cola Wars

1964-1989
truman v stalin

Cold War Origins

Truman v Stalin

The Cold War was an economic, political, technological, scientific, and military confrontation and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union.

USA

USSR

slide30

Capitalism and

Democracy

  • Capitalism: An economic system in which money is invested with the goal of making profit.
  • Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations - 1776
    • Free-market Capitalism
    • Laissez-faire – gov’t hands-off
  • Democracy: Government system in which the ultimate power rests with the people.
slide31

Communism

  • An economic system in which all means of production are owned by the government, private property does not exist, and all goods and services are shared equally.
  • Eventually a complete form of Socialism would arise
    • No private property
    • A classless society
yalta conference
Yalta Conference
  • USSR, U.S., Britain & France would each occupy a part of Germany but would allow for German reunification once she was no longer a threat.
  • Soviets dominated their Eastern German zone - Germany was to pay heavy reparations to USSR in form of agricultural and industrial goods.
division of germany
Division of Germany
  • The U.S., Great Britain, and France decided to merge their zones and allow the Germans to have their own govt.
  • West Berlin was also merged and became part of West Germany.
  • The Soviets still controlled what became known as East Germany.
slide35

Choosing Sides

  • By 1948, pro-Soviet governments were set in Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.
  • These countries were called satellite nations.
slide36

“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.” ~Winston Churchill

containment and the long telegram
Containment and the Long Telegram
  • The U.S. ambassador in Moscow, George Kennan, analyzed the situation: if the U.S. could prevent the Soviets from expanding, their system would eventually fall apart.
  • He described this idea in what became known as the Long Telegram
  • “containment policy”: keep communism from spreading by diplomatic, economic, and military force.
slide38

Truman Doctrine

Remember Greasy Turkey

In August of 1946, the Soviets were trying to establish communist governments in Greece and Turkey.

Truman asked congress for $400 million to help fight communist aggressions via military and economic aid.

In the long run, it pledged the U.S. to fight communism worldwide.

marshall plan
Marshall Plan
  • 1947: Massive aid package to help war-torn Europe recover from the war
  • Purpose: prevent communism from spreading into economically devastated regions
  • Result: Western and Central Europe recovered economically -- the "economic miracle"
  • Soviets refused to allow U.S. aid to countries in eastern Europe
slide41

The Berlin Airlift

  • In June of 1948, the Soviets closed all access to W. Berlin. For the next 11 months, Truman sent cargo planes to drop food, supplies, medicine, etc. Stalin lifted the blockade in May of 1949.
slide43

NATO

In April of 1949, the U.S. formed a military alliance with W. Europe: North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

NATO members agreed to aid any member that was attacked.

This organization originally had 12 countries. Today NATO has 26 members, with the goal of protecting democracy.

the eastern bloc
The Eastern Bloc

Changes went forward at slow & uneven pace; came to almost a halt by the mid-1960s.

Five-year plans in USSR reintroduced to tackle massive economic reconstruction.

Stalin’s new foe, the U.S., provided an excuse for re-establishing harsh dictatorship.

Stalin revived many forced labor camps, which had accounted for roughly 1/6 of all new construction in Soviet Union before the war.

Culture and art were also purged.

warsaw pact
Warsaw Pact
  • Warsaw Pact: A mutual defense treaty between eight communist states of Central and Eastern Europe; created to counter NATO.
  • The Warsaw Treaty’s organization was two-fold: the Political Consultative Committee handled political matters, and the Combined Command of Pact Armed Forces controlled the multi-national armed forces.
the arms race beginnings
The Arms Race: Beginnings
  • Nuclear arms race: A competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
  • In the years immediately after World War II, the United States had a monopoly on nuclear weaponry. American leaders this would be enough to draw concessions from the Soviet Union but this proved ineffective.
  • The first Soviet bomb was detonated on August 29, 1949, shocking the entire world. The bomb, named "Joe One" by the West, was more or less a copy of "Fat Man".
the arms race politics
The Arms Race: Politics
  • Brinkmanship: Willing to go to the brink of nuclear war to maintain peace.
  • U.S. vows to destroy USSR with nuclear weapons if it tries to expand.
  • U.S. maintained a policy of "massive retaliation" between 1953-55. This resulted in a cut in military spending and an increase in America’s nuclear arsenal.
  • Mutually assured destruction: Both sides knew that any attack upon the other would be devastating to themselves, thus in theory restraining them from attacking the other.
the arms race technology
The Arms Race: Technology
  • The B-52 bomber could fly across continents and drop nuclear bombs anywhere in the world.
  • Submarines capable of launching nuclear missiles were also created.
  • ICBMs: Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles – allowed for nuclear bombs to be delivered without threat to human life
  • H-Bomb – “Ivy Mike” was detonated by the United States on November 1, 1952
    • It created a cloud 100 miles wide and 25 miles high, killing all life on the surrounding islands.
slide50

How big are today’s

nuclear bombs?

slide51

Little Boy: 15 kilotons

Fat Man: 21 kilotons

Ivy King: 500 kilotons

B53: 9,000 kilotons

How big are today’s

nuclear bombs?

Castle Bravo: 15,000 kilotons

TzarBomba: 50,000 kilotons

living under the threat of the bomb
Living Under the Threat of the Bomb
  • The threat of an atomic attack against the United States forced Americans to prepare themselves for a surprise attack.
  • Although Americans tried to protect themselves, experts realized that for every person killed instantly by a nuclear blast, four more would later die from nuclear fallout (the radiation left over after the blast).
  • Some families built fallout shelters in their backyards and stocked them with canned food. Schools performed air raid drills in an effort to prepare children for an attack.
slide56

1. Keep an eye on the news.

2. Consider evacuation (if possible).

slide57

3. Seek shelter immediately.

If within the vicinity of the blast (or ground zero), your chances of survival are virtually nonexistent unless you are in a shelter that provides a very (VERY) good blast protection. If you are a few miles out, you will have about 10-15 seconds until the heat wave hits you, and maybe 20-30 seconds until the shock wave does. Under no circumstances should you look directly at the fireball.

If you can't find shelter, seek a depressed area nearby and lay face down, exposing as little skin as possible. Even at 5 miles away, the heat can burn the skin off your body

Failing the above options, get indoors, if, and only if, you can be sure that the building will not suffer significant blast and heat damage. This will, at least, provide some protection against radiation. Stay well away from any windows, preferably in a room without one.

slide58

4. Beware radiation exposure.

Once you have survived the blast and the initial radiation (for now at least; radiation symptoms have an incubation period), you must find protection against the burning black soot that will rain down from the sky

Avoid exposure to Gamma radiation. Try not to spend more than 5 minutes exposedto avoid irreparable damage to the internal organs.

slide59

5. Plan on staying in your shelter for a minimum of 200 hours (8-9 days).

Under no circumstances leave the shelter in the first forty-eight hours.

6. Ration your supplies