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Modern Amphibians = Lissamphibia. Apoda (caecilians). Urodela (Caudata) (salamanders and newts). Anura (frogs and toads). Shared derived traits of Lissamphibia Table 10-1. Pedicellate teeth. Operculum-columella complex – Transferring air waves into fluid waves

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Modern Amphibians = Lissamphibia

Apoda (caecilians)

Urodela (Caudata)

(salamanders and newts)

Anura (frogs and toads)

slide3

Shared derived traits of

Lissamphibia

Table 10-1

Pedicellate teeth

slide4

Operculum-columella complex – Transferring air waves into fluid waves

and ground vibration into sound.

slide6

Thin skin with mucus

and poison glands

Implications for physiology

and ecology

slide10

The skin as a storehouse for toxins Chapter 10.5

And warning and cryptic pigments Aposematic coloration

slide11

Apoda (Gymnophiona) Caecilians

Reduced eyes, sensory tentacles, dermal folds

slide12

Apoda Reproduction

Internal fertilzation with phallodeum

Cloaca

Oviparous (egg guarding) or viviparous

slide13

Adult teeth

Baby teeth grappling

slide15

Hedonic (scent) glands

Reproduction

Visual displays and olfaction

Sexual dimorphism

Nasolabial groove

slide16

Egg mass

Fertilization external (few) or internal

(most)

Spermatophore

Fire salamander - viviparous

slide19

Anura

Reproduction dominated by vocalization

Expense? See text

Functions of reproductive calls?

Explosive versus prolonged breeding?

slide20

Tungara frogs

Whine

Chuck

Males alone – whine only

Males with males – Whine- chuck

Females prefer whine- chuck call

Explain the pattern

slide22

External fertilization via amplexus

Male

Female

Function of sexual dimorphism?

slide23

Biphasic Lifestyle

Advantages?

Disadvantages?

slide24

Amphibian Conservation Issues

Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) Introduced into Australia

Conservation concerns?

slide26

Major Conservation Concern: Amphibian Declines

2006 report:

1,856 species, 32.5 percent of the known species of amphibians, are “globally threatened,” (vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered). By comparison, 12 percent of bird species and 23 percent of mammal species are threatened.

435 amphibian species are in rapid decline, at least 9 species have gone extinct since 1980 and another 113 species have not been reported from the wild in recent years and are considered to be possibly extinct.

Causes?

slide29

Over-exploitation as:

Food

Pets - Goliath frog

6 million into Hong Kong/yr

slide31

Introduced Species

99% of lakes in Sierra Nevada originally without trout.

Rana mucosa (native frog) declining in part due to trout predation

slide33

Hyla

Rana

Bufo

slide34

Increased ultraviolet radiation due to reduced ozone

Worldwide studies of UV on amphibians

Red = negative effect of UV

UV protected

No UV protection

slide35

Pollutants

Nitrogen, pesticides, acidification,

slide38

Trematodes parasites cause abnormalities

Eggs

Meracidium

Cysts

Cercaria

slide41

Global Climate Change?

Direct: Loren’s paper

Interaction with:

disease

susceptibility to toxins

susceptibility to parasites

Species Introduction?