Modern Amphibians = Lissamphibia. Apoda (caecilians). Urodela (Caudata) (salamanders and newts). Anura (frogs and toads). Shared derived traits of Lissamphibia Table 10-1. Pedicellate teeth. Operculum-columella complex – Transferring air waves into fluid waves
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(salamanders and newts)
Anura (frogs and toads)
and ground vibration into sound.
and poison glands
Implications for physiology
And warning and cryptic pigments Aposematic coloration
Reduced eyes, sensory tentacles, dermal folds
Internal fertilzation with phallodeum
Oviparous (egg guarding) or viviparous
Baby teeth grappling
Visual displays and olfaction
Fertilization external (few) or internal
Fire salamander - viviparous
Reproduction dominated by vocalization
Expense? See text
Functions of reproductive calls?
Explosive versus prolonged breeding?
Males alone – whine only
Males with males – Whine- chuck
Females prefer whine- chuck call
Explain the pattern
Function of sexual dimorphism?
Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) Introduced into Australia
1,856 species, 32.5 percent of the known species of amphibians, are “globally threatened,” (vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered). By comparison, 12 percent of bird species and 23 percent of mammal species are threatened.
435 amphibian species are in rapid decline, at least 9 species have gone extinct since 1980 and another 113 species have not been reported from the wild in recent years and are considered to be possibly extinct.
to environmental changes??
Pets - Goliath frog
6 million into Hong Kong/yr
99% of lakes in Sierra Nevada originally without trout.
Rana mucosa (native frog) declining in part due to trout predation
Worldwide studies of UV on amphibians
Red = negative effect of UV
No UV protection
Nitrogen, pesticides, acidification,
Direct: Loren’s paper
susceptibility to toxins
susceptibility to parasites