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Chapters 20-21. Protists and Fungi. IV. Kingdom Protista . Protist: eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or a fungus Classified according to the way they obtain nutrition. V. Animal-like Protists: Protozoans. Zooflagellates: swim using flagella

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Chapters 20-21

Protists and Fungi

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IV. Kingdom Protista

  • Protist: eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or a fungus

  • Classified according to the way they obtain nutrition

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V. Animal-like Protists: Protozoans

  • Zooflagellates: swim using flagella

    - many live in lakes and streams where they absorb nutrients through their cell membrane

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  • Animal-like Protists and Disease

    1. Malaria

    a. Plasmodium transmitted by female Anopheles mosquito

    b. Infects liver cells and red blood cells, causing them to burst

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2. African Sleeping Sickness – Trypanosoma transmitted by the tsetse fly; damage to nervous system

3. Amebic Dysentery – Entamoeba spread through contaminated drinking water; attacks wall of intestine

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  • Ecology of Animal-like Protists

    1. Recycle nutrients by breaking down dead matter; serve as the base of food chains

    2. Trichonympha: lives in digestive systems of termites; digests cellulose in wood

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VI. Plant-like Protists: Unicellular Algae

  • Use chlorophyll and accessory pigments to make food from sunlight

  • Euglenophytes: have 2 flagella; no cell wall

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  • Ecology of Unicellular Algae

    1. Make up a large part of phytoplankton – small, photosynthetic organisms found at the surface of the ocean

    2. Symbiotic algae: some live together and help other organisms

    3. Algal blooms: large masses of algae; dangerous to habitat

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VII. Plant-like Protists: Red, Brown, and Green Algae

  • Red Algae: contain red accessory pigments; can live at great depths due to their efficiency in absorbing light energy

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  • Uses of Algae photosynthetic pigments, cell wall composition

    1. Major food source for ocean life

    2. Used to treat health problems – ulcers, high blood pressure

    3. Used as food thickeners – ice cream, salad dressing, pudding

    4. Used in industry – plastics, waxes, deodorants, paints, artificial wood

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5. Most important contribution… photosynthetic pigments, cell wall composition

Produce much of Earth’s oxygen through photosynthesis

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VIII. Fungus-like Protists photosynthetic pigments, cell wall composition

  • Obtain nutrients from dead or decaying matter

  • Slime Molds

    1. Cellular and acellular molds

    2. Important in recycling organic material

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Cause of the


Potato Famine

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IX. The Kingdom Fungi water, parasites on land

  • Fungi

    1. Eukaryotic heterotrophs that have cell walls

    2. Digest food outside of their bodies and then absorb it

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  • Reproduction in Fungi water, parasites on land

    1. Most reproduce both asexually and sexually

    2. Classified according to their structure and method of reproduction

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X. Classification of Fungi water, parasites on land

  • Common Molds - Zygomycetes

    1. Reproduce using zygospores

    2. Example: black bread mold

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  • Sac Fungi - Ascomycetes water, parasites on land

    1. Reproduce using ascospores

    2. Example: yeast

  • Club Fungi - Basidiomycetes

    1. Reproduce using basidia

    2. Examples: mushrooms, shelf fungi, puffballs

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  • Imperfect Fungi – Deuteromycetes water, parasites on land

    1. Reproduce asexually only

    2. Example: Penicillium – may have evolved from an ascomycete that lost its ability to reproduce sexually

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XI. Ecology of Fungi water, parasites on land

  • Decomposers

    - break down bodies and waste of other organisms (saprobes)

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  • Parasites water, parasites on land

    1. Cause plant and animal diseases

    2. Examples: ringworm and athlete’s foot form on outer layers of skin

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  • Symbiotic Relationships water, parasites on land

    1. Lichens – fungus and a photosynthetic organism

    2. Mycorrhizae – fungi on plant roots; help plants grow