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Challenges and Opportunities for Student Success Norman A. Stahl. Ranked First by U.S. News. Global Context is Examining Key Transition Spaces. The College and Career Readiness movement P-20 Pipeline Reform Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI)
The key intellectual content knowledge, skills, dispositions, and attributes needed to complete entry-level, credit-bearing, general education courses across a range of subjects and disciplines.
Conley, Aspengren, Gallagher & Nies, 2006 for America Diploma Project
Developmental education coursework is a mode of access to higher education
Developmental Education Coursework
General Education and Career/Technical Coursework
For the at-risk student pipeline leakage is a PK-16 issue. There are in reality many transition spaces across the years…some good …some bad. The effect of being underprepared and misprepared for the next step on the ladder (another bad metaphor) is an exponential factorbecause of the issue of prior knowledge or competency as required for classes or expereinces requiring greater sophistication.
Administrators and numerous faculty welcomed the pipeline leakage as they felt “those students” in a developmental education class should never be in “real” (my) college classes.
Developmental education was explicitly or implicitly a gatekeeper(disliked but essential).
It was not politically correct to acknowledge such a stance, and we were missionaries.
(Not just for developmental education or learning assistance)
Perin, D. (2011). Facilitating Student Learning Through Contextualization: A Review of Evidence. Community College Review, 20 (10), 1-28.
Perin, D. (2013). Teaching Academically Underprepared Students in Community Colleges. In J. S. Levin & S. T. Kater (Eds.), Understanding community colleges (pp.87-103). New York, NY: Routledge.
Peter Adams, Sarah Gearhart, Robert Miller, and Anne Roberts (2009). Journal of Basic Writing, 28 (2), 50-69.
Accelerated English at Chabot College: A Synthesis of Key Findings
Katie Hern. (2011). California Acceleration Project. http://cap.3csn.org
The following statement has been attributed to Harry Singer…
“It takes ten years for literacy theory and research to find its way into pedagogical practice.”
Why did it take a decade to move from theory to practice? Is this true today?
Eric Paulson, (2013). Journal of Developmental Education, 36 (3), 36-37.
Programs must align with PK-12 feeder schools
Developmental Education Aligned to the Common Core State Standards: Insights and Illustrations
A leader who confines his role to his people's experience dooms himself to stagnation; a leader who outstrips his people's experience runs the risk of not being understood.
If I ever quote Nixon, you’ll need to Gibbs’ slap me.
“Disciplinary literacyis based on the premise that students can develop deep conceptual knowledge in a discipline only by using the habits of reading, writing, talking, and thinking which that discipline values and uses.”
(McConachie, S., Hall, M., Resnick, L., Raci, A., Bill, V, Bintz, J., Taylor, J., 2006)
The thought is that these prototypical strategies are apropos for all disciplines.
Each discipline poses its own literacy challenges
Each discipline requires:
University of Pittsburgh
Corroboration: comparison of documents
Sourcing: Identifying the source of the document before reading it to determine possible bias
Contextualizing: Considering the time and place of the events in the text
Analysis of Expert Readersin Three Disciplines: History,Mathematics, and ChemistryCynthia Shanahan, Timothy Shanahan,and Cynthia Misischia(2011). Journal of Literacy Research, 43(4) 393–429
Tamara L. Jetton
Every time we adopt a new set of standards, we open up the door for there to be a new set of students who do not meet the standards.
Will these students be the new a-risk students…the new developmental education students…the new special education students…the new yet to be labeled students???
Which sucks more a. the Compass b. the Accuplacer c. the 200th form of the Nelson Denny Reading Test d. any test approved by the Higher Education Coordinating Board e. any test for which I do not get a royalty
Postsecondary institutions’ need to employ meaningful forms of assessment that respect each individual’s life/developmental stage, cultural background, gender, etc.
Postsecondary institutions and state offices of higher education need to understand the appropriate role of standardized testing and then to develop pedagogically sound and research driven assessment programs that go beyond standardized testing (i.e., multiple measures and affective measures) –
Developmental education and learning assistance programs need to keep abreast of the continuing discussions associated with the issue of mandatory vs. voluntary assessment and the placement of students in developmental and content field course work.
Institutions need to direct specific attention to the moral and legal issues associated with the admission of all students to higher education study.
Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 40(2), 102-109.
K.L. Hughes, & J. Scott-Clayton. (2011). (CCRC Working Paper No. 19, Assessment of Evidence Series). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.
What will be the implications of the redesign of developmental education for learning assistance programming??? Short run and long run…?
Will learning assistance programming be put under the microscope as the second generation of redesign???
How will Learning Assistance Programs adapt and adopt to the cognitive constructs and pedagogy associated with the CCSS or the new delivery systems of higher education?
How will Learning Assistance leaders revise training protocols for their professional staff and their peer assistance staff to meet the new postsecondary learning environment?
Compiler/Editor: David R. Arendale
Which ones will have impact on Developmental Studies and Learning Assistance?
Change in educational practice more resembles change in fashion; hemlines go up and down according to popular tastes, not evidence. We do give lip service to research in education. Yet practices…go in and out of fashion, often in direct contradiction to well-established evidence, but more often in the absence of adequately rigorous and compelling research.
Literacy Research Methodologies (2011)
Nell K. Duke & Marla H. Mallette
The Guilford Press
David Reinking and Barbara Bradley
Formative and Design Experiments: Approaches to Language and Literacy Research
Teachers College Press
The Video Journal of Education
Volume 11, No. 7
A recurring theme in the literature suggests that few if any of the individuals working with at-risk postsecondary students are trained specifically for such a function.
Such will be a greater issues as faculty are asked to cross borders such in integrated reading and writing classes.
The Bedford Bibliography for Teachers of Basic Writing
Developmental Education: Readings on Its Past, Present, and Future
Teaching Developmental Reading: Historical, Theoretical, and Practical Background Readings
Teaching Developmental Writing: Background Readings
Teaching Study Strategies in Developmental Education
How much time I got left???
It’s not developmental education, which everybody calls remedial classwork, but only because they do not know or forgot the term compensatory education, or they are afraid to admit that they used the term bonehead Englishwhen they were enrolled in college…
If you leave San Francisco for the Napa Valley wine country and you only get to San Rafael, you should not be judged on your knowledge of the Napa Valley.
(I stole that metaphor, but let’s act like I didn’t.)
Norm Stahl (AKA…Uncle Norm, Steeleyes Cody, Gibbs, and Papa Smurf)
Professor Emeritus, Literacy Education, Northern Illinois University