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Naturalistic Driving Studies: Another tool to assess the impact of driver distraction. Charlie Klauer, Ph.D. What is ‘Naturalistic’ Driving?. No experimenter present Data collected in privately-owned vehicle, preferably Instrumentation = unobtrusive Hidden radar
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Charlie Klauer, Ph.D.
Empirical Data Collection
Large-Scale Naturalistic Data Collection
Highly capable instrumentation (well beyond EDRs)
and Incident Push Button mounted above Rear View Mirror
Mounted behind the Rear View Mirror
magnitude than a near crash.
2. This study allowed the capture and assessment of near crash events in large numbers. Near crashes provide valuable information as a potential surrogate for crash events and as a tool for the assessment of the factors that contributed to the execution of a successful evasive maneuver.
3. Inattention to the forward roadway, which was operationally defined as including: 1) secondary task distraction, 2) driving-related inattention to the forward roadway (e.g., blind spot checks), 3) moderate to extreme fatigue, and 4) other non-driving-related eye glances, is the primary contributing factor in most crashes and collisions.
4. 80% of all crashes and 65% of all near crashes involved at least one form of driving inattention just prior to (i.e., within 3 seconds) the onset of the conflict.
5. 93% of the conflict with lead vehicle crashes and minor collisions involved looking away. In 86% of the lead vehicle crashes/collisions, the headway at the onset of the event was greater than 2.0 seconds.
7. Fatigue contributed to crashes/collisions at much higher rates than is reported using existing crash databases. Fatigue was a contributing factor in 20% of all crashes and 12% of near crashes, while most current database estimates place fatigue-related crashes at approximately 2 to 4% of total crashes.
9. The rate of inattention-related crash and near crash events decreased dramatically with age, with the rate being as much as four times higher for the 18-20 year old age group relative to some of the older driver groups (i.e., 35 and up).
Secondary tasks that are moderately to very complex and driver drowsiness have the highest associated crash risk. Very simple secondary tasks do not appear to have a crash risk that is greater than normal driving.
Odds Ratio = (A x D)/(B x C)