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Community Initiative INTERREG III B (2000-2006) CADSES SIMOCA Project Case study of ALTO SALENTO
The Alto Salento within the CADSES area ALTO SALENTO
Alto Salento Map Total surface km2 552,01 Inhabitants 95.549 Density (ab/ km2)173,1 MUNICIPALITIES Ostuni Carovigno Ceglie Messapica San Vito dei Normanni San Michele Salentino
Physical characteristics of the soils of the pilot area Flat soils (slope ≤ 5) (92,5%) Soils with a poor skeleton (1-5 %) (92,93%) Sandy-loamy soils (82,69%) Salty-clay soil (95,27%) Neutral soils (60,64% - 33,31%) high organic matter (79,93%) High fertility (34,4% ) medium (31,5% ) low ( 34,1)
Uso del suolo LAND USE
LANDSCAPE Aspetti ambientali
Alto Salento socio-economic features, infrastructures and public services
Population’ s ageing process Negative aspects related to Population balancefrom 1997 Negative trend of migratory balance Reduction of natural balance. This drive to “zero grow”. Population’ s ageing process
ACTIVE POPULATION DUE TO PROFESSIONNEL CONDITIONS The potential capacity of the territory under study is to provide more labour force than the region as a whole
RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT The rate of unemployment tells us a dangerous problem of real occupation, leaving unemployed more than the 31% of available rate of employed.
Data analysis shows immediately the peculiarity of the area in question which is characterized by a remarkable agricultural connotation.
INCOME PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION THE TERRITORY OF ALTO SALENTO IS CHARACTERIZED BY A LEVEL OF INCOME (AVAILABLE AND TAXABLE) PER INHABITANT THAT IS MUCH LOWER THAN REGIONAL AVERAGE DATA
The relevance of olivicolture Locally there are 55 processing unit of olive oil and olive orchards are the 66% of the total arable land of the Alto Salento
Organic agriculture, multifunctionality and typical products of the Alto Salento
FARM MULTIFUNCTIONALITY From the point of view of production activities diversification and farm multifunctionality, the most significant socio-economic event is certainly the agriturismi accommodation. Financial contribution: C.I.P. LEADER II O.R.P. PUGLIA 1994-99 ROUTES OF OIL AND WINE
TYPICAL PRODUCTS AND TRADITIONAL PRODUCTS P.O.D. Olio extravergine di oliva DOP “Collina di Brindisi” Vino DOC Bianco “Ostuni” e “Ottavianello Rosso” Vino DOC “Martina Franca” OTHER TYPICAL PRODUCTS Almonds, figs, legumes, bakery products, meats, cheese etc. Traditional products MORE THAN 50 PRODUCTS ARE IN THE LIST OF TYPICAL PRODCUTS OF ITALIAN MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
THE STAKEHOLDER TIPOLOGYOrganic farmers, sellers, agriturism operator, consumers, olive growers, nursery owner, municipality administrator, organic agriculture inspector, leader program responsible, veterinary, no-profit association member, agronomist, ecc, ecc
AGRICULTURAL SECTOR COSTRAINS AND OPPORTUNITIES • COSTRAINS • Prevalence of rocky and marginal soils • Shortage of water resources and risk of salinization of groundwater close to the coastline • Poor conditions of the main environmental components with water and soil pollution under way and increasing difficulties in terms of waste management • Population ageing • High rate of unemployment • OPPORTUNITIES • Possibility to produce high quality food • Possibility to introduce organic fodder crops in crop rotations • Some of the most important Protected Areas of the Region fall within the territory • High environmental value of natural areas • Crucial naturalistic, historical, architectonical and cultural priorities • Importance of traditional olive-growing from the point of view of landscape
AGRICULTURAL SECTOR COSTRAINS AND OPPORTUNITIES • OPPORTUNITIES • Remarkable tourist vocation • Possibility to enhance the great heritage of existing rural structures (coastal towers, masserie, etc.) • Potential development of typical quality productions • Possibility to create integrated food-and-wine, naturalistic and environmental paths • Sufficient equipment of physical infrastructures • Several initiatives of negotiated programming : Leader, POR, TIP, COSTRAINS • Per-capita income lower than the regional average • Modern distribution of moderate dimension • Decrease in UAA • Increase in farm fragmentation • Oil monoculture • Undersized private and public services compared to population • Poor inclination to enterprise cooperation and cooperation between enterprises and public institutions
Evolution of organic and / or multifunctional farming At the beginning there were few pioneering farms started to produce in compliance with the principles of organic farming ten years ago/some external entrepreneur Positive effect of the improvement of quality products spread of organic farming in the considered area only thanks to the incentives envisaged by the Regulation EEC 2078/92. Constrains of technological and economic (monoculture/pests; no premium price for organic products Lack of training for both for technician and for the farmers Exit from the organic system/ increasing and stabilization of the organic “core” Good level of integration between agritourism and organic productions
Organic producer that believes in the method Age between 20 and 40 years7 high level of scholarship Mind open to the knowledge and the deepening of technical problems Information based upon personal experience with empiric aspects / scarce comprehension Psycho-social aspect that drives to protagonist role Management of the farm devoted to a personal style not replicable Multifunctionality of the farms (agritourism) Marketing aspect to be developed/ target of visitor or client The role of the producers in the creation, diffusion and adoption of new technologies Organic producers considered opportunist Disaffection towards best practice in agriculture Behaviors strictly linked to the overcoming of the inspection body activity organic production only for the generic market without differentiation
AGRONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS • Use of preservative agronomic practices with a lower environmental impact • Soil tillage with minimal and use of zero-tillage • Green manuring • Use of animal manure; use of organic fertilisers or commercial composts authorized by the organic guidelines, pollen • Weed control is realized almost only by means of shallow soil tillages • In olivicolture the key pest (Bactrocera oleae) is the only one that is persecuted
Relationship between the production, the territory orientation and the specificity of local know-out • Spreading of the multifunctional farming model nourishing the affirmation of the organic agriculture. • presence of well-preserved manufactures (dry-stone walls, trulli houses, farmhouses) makes up the necessary premise for setting up any guesting activity in the agricultural sector. • there is a common olive-growing industry and the local olive varieties, remained unchanged over time, are well adapted to the local pedoclimatic conditions • Rediscovering of old and famous dry-farming techniques
Consideration shared by all stakeholders: Farmers do not interact with other sectors They market their products on the basis of the existing possibilities The most spread interaction is the one established between organic agriculture and the sector of farm holidays Integrations example: Oil route of the “Collina di Brindisi” that involves many farms, oil mills, farmhouses, etc. There is no case of organic farms interacting with handicraft activities CRITICAL ASPECTS: strong competition among the local entrepreneurs lack of link between public institutions and private farms or associations (cooperatives) poor presence of cooperatives and associations Lack of financial support Lack of “leader” figures Inter-sectorial and intra-sectorial processes
STAKEHOLDERS ADVICES Third parties (extension services) are demanded Spreading of information among all the sensible area Pilot actions based upon organic agriculture Inter-sectorial and intra-sectorial processes of integration INTEGRATION ADVANTAGES Farm level Incomes improving Better visibility of the farms To improve the commercial activities Different incomes Mutual help between farmers Synergy between farms Sensible area level Improving of local economy, particularly devoted to tourism Good effects upon the labor sector
Le relazioni interpersonali e gli aspetti istituzionali I temi dell’agricoltura biologica nell’Alto Salento interessano e determinano rapporti soprattutto nell’ambito dello stesso mondo agricolo Indirettamente interessano il mondo dell’ambientalismo Buona relazione tra le rappresentanze dei comuni (Consorzio dei comuni dell’Alto Salento) Ruolo positivo delle associazioni e dei sindacati Nell’Alto Salento non è mai stato avviato un programma per il settore biologico Esperienze di programmazione dal basso (Leader II, Leader plus, Patto territoriale agricolo) Partenariato da avviare: tutti gli attori locali (Politici, imprenditori, associazioni di categoria, scuola, mondo finanziario delle banche, pubblica sicurezza
L’avvio di un processo di sviluppo basato sull’agricoltura biologica e multifunzionale • Posizioni contrastanti • I tempi non sono ancora maturi per basare un intero programma di sviluppo sull’agricoltura biologica • Nell’area esistono le condizioni necessarie che se opportunamente stimolate potrebbero diventare realtà importanti Partenariato da avviare: tutti gli attori locali (Politici, imprenditori, associazioni di categoria, scuola, mondo finanziario delle banche, pubblica sicurezza etc.)
Gli obiettivi e le priorità del Piano • Studiare e sperimentare colture diverse rispetto all’olivo. • Miglioramento del reddito delle aziende agricole che si dedicano ad attività come il biologico o alla multifunzionalità. • Avviare iniziative che agevolino il momento commerciale. • Garanzia di sicurezza nelle campagne. • Accrescere la cultura scientifica del biologico. • Migliorare il livello di integrazione tra le aziende agricole e gli altri settori economici dell’area. • Avvicinare i giovani al biologico. • Aumentare le forme di diversificazione dell’attività agricola attraverso il turismo rurale. • Sviluppare forme di fornitura di servizi ambientali da parte delle aziende agli enti locali. • Migliorare la qualità delle produzioni locali. • Miglioramento delle competenze. • Valorizzazione della cultura rurale dell’area e del suo paesaggio. • Formazione di tecnici e operatori. • Gestione ottimale del passaggio generazionale in agricoltura.