و من نعمره ننکسه فی الخلق افلا یعقلون یس. 68. بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم. Menopause . دکتر فرحناز مردانیان متخصص زنان و مامائی – فلوشیپ نازائی عضو هئیت علمی گروه زنان ومامائی. Menopause . Menopause :-
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بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم
Perminent cessation of menstruation caused by failure of ovarian follicular development in the presence of adequate gonadotrophin stimulation.
The physiologic period in a women's life during which there is regression of ovarian function.
Cessation of menstruation due to depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40y.
Surgical, radiation therapy ,chemotherapy, infection and tumer
Degeneration of granulosa & thica cells
Failure to react to endogenous gonadotrophine
↑ FSH & LH
Stress Urinary Incontinence
Connective Tissue Changes
Affect 70 % of Women, Vary in Severity
Is a Form of Thermoregulatory Dysfunction
Can Effectively be Treated with Estrogen
Cause Sleeplessness, with Serious Mood Disturbance, Depression and Irritability
Atrophy of vaginal Epithelium and Dryness Pudendal Nerve Neuropathy
Dyspareunia, Decreased Sexual Desire and Arousal (decreased clitoral sensitivity)
Atrophy of urethral and Trigon epithelium
Reduced Collagen Contents of Skin (wrinkles) and Bones
Connective Tissue Changes
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Loprinzi CL, et. al. Phase III evaluation of fluoxetine treatment of hot flashes. J Clin Oncol 2002 Mar 15;20(6):1578-83.
Guttuso T .Gabapentin's effects on hot flashes in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.Obstet Gynecol 2003;101(2):337-45.
Kronenberg F et.al. Complementary and alternative medicine for menopausal symptoms: a review of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Intern Med 2002 ;137(10):805-13.
Is a biennial or short-lived perennial legume
Habitat: roadsides, clearing, fields and meadows
Are group of antiestrogens that possess:
Oestrogen Agonisticactivity at desired targets: on bone and on lipoproteins.
And Antagonistic actionon the breast and the endometrium
Wyon. A comparison of acupuncture and estrogen. Climacteric 2004.
Recommendation by the Hong Kong College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists