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Tulane University Bloodborne Pathogens Training

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  1. Tulane UniversityBloodborne Pathogens Training Annual update for Tulane University employees with potential exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM) January 2013 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  2. This training module is a self-study designed to provide a review of the following: • Bloodborne pathogens (BBP) • Modes of transmission of BBP • Exposure control principles and practices as they relate to bloodborne pathogens • Post-exposure protocols for Tulane employees Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  3. Bloodborne Pathogens Standard • OSHA (1991)- “Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens” (29 CFR 1910.1030) http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/bloodbornepathogens/index.html • Revised in 2001 in response to the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act Goal: eliminate or minimize occupational exposure to Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and other bloodborne pathogens Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  4. What are Bloodborne Pathogens (BBP)? • Any pathogenic microorganisms or OPIM (other potentially infectious materials) present in human blood that can cause disease in humans. • Primary focus in our setting is HBV, HCV, and HIV- which will be detailed further in this presentation. • Other examples of BBP include microorganisms that cause: • malaria, syphilis, babesiosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis, arboviral infections, relapsing fever, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, HTLV-1, and viral hemorrhagic fever. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  5. Working with Non-Human Primates? • Any employees who work with certain non-human primates (monkeys, monkey tissue, or monkey specimens) may have the potential for contracting B virus and/or SIV (Simian Immunodeficiency Virus). • Please contact the BBP Coordinator for additional training more specific to your occupational safety needs. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  6. We know blood and blood products are included in this BBP scope, but what are Other Potentially Infectious Materials (OPIM)? Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  7. Synovial, pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal fluid Cerebrospinal fluid Semen Vaginal secretions Amniotic fluid Saliva (in dental procedures) Any unfixed tissue or organ from a human Any body fluid visibly contaminated with blood All body fluid where it is difficult to distinguish between body fluids Cell or tissue cultures that were HIV or HBV infected OPIM includes the following: Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  8. Let’s look at each of the BBP of concern in detail… HBV, HIV, HCV Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  9. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) • Hepatitis B is caused by a virus that attacks the liver and can cause lifelong infection, cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver failure, or death. • In 2009, an estimated 38,000 people were newly infected with HBV. 800,000 - 1.4 million Americans are chronically infected with HBV. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  10. Hepatitis B Virus • HBV infection is a well recognized occupational risk for healthcare personnel. • The average volume of blood inoculated during a needlestick injury with a 22-gauge needle is approximately 1 µl, a quantity sufficient to contain up to 100 infectious doses of HBV. • HBV can survive outside the body at least 7 days and still be capable of causing infection. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  11. Hepatitis B Virus • About 30% of infected persons have no sign or symptoms of HBV. • If symptoms occur, they usually begin to appear on average about three months after exposure to hepatitis B virus. • If you have symptoms, they might include: • jaundice • abdominal discomfort • dark urine • clay-colored bowel movements • joint pain • fatigue and/or fever • loss of appetite • nausea Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  12. HBV IS PREVENTABLE!A safe & effective vaccine is available. • Hepatitis B vaccine prevents hepatitis B infection and its serious consequences. • If the vaccine is administered before infection, it prevents the development of the disease and the carrier state in almost all individuals. • Hepatitis B vaccine consists of a series of three injections – initial, one a month later, and one six months from the first. • Available FREE of charge from employer for high-risk employees (Your specific Tulane department is responsible for payment for at-risk employees working in that area.). Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  13. What treatment is available for HBV? • In the occupational setting, multiple doses of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin initiated within 1 week following percutaneous exposure to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive blood provides an estimated 75% protection from HBV infection. • There is no medication available to treat acute Hepatitis B. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  14. HIV • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that can lead to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Once a person has been infected with HIV, it may be many years before AIDS actually develops. • HIV kills or damages cells in the body’s immune system, gradually destroying the body’s ability to fight infection and certain cancers. computer generated art quality graphics of HIV was done by Russell Kightley of Canberra, Australia. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  15. HIV Through December 2001, there were 57 documented cases of occupational HIV transmission to health care workers in the United States, and no confirmed cases have been reported since 1999. At the end of 2008, an estimated 1,178,350 persons aged 13 and older were living with HIV infection in the United States. Of those, 20% had undiagnosed HIV infections and were unaware of their HIV infection. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  16. HIV • Some infected with HIV have no symptoms for up to ten years or longer. • Within a month or two after exposure to the virus some experience flu-like illness such as: • fever, headache, fatigue, weight loss, diarrhea, night sweats, enlarged lymph nodes • These symptoms usually disappear within a week to a month and are often mistaken for those of another viral infection. During this period, the individual is very infectious. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  17. HIV • The average risk for HIV transmission after a percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood has been estimated to be approximately 0.3%. • HIV does not survive well outside the body, making the possibility of environmental transmission remote. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  18. HIV- no cure or vaccine available • Treatment protocols from the U.S. Public Health Service have been developed using antiretroviral agents from five classes of drugs to treat HIV infection. These include: • the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, and a single fusion inhibitor. • The recommendations provide guidance to effectively suppress the virus on the basis of HIV transmission risk represented by the exposure. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  19. HIV • Side effects associated with the use of antiviral drugs can be severe. • The drug regimen is not a cure for AIDS, but it has greatly improved the health of many people with AIDS and it reduces the amount of virus circulating in the blood to nearly undetectable levels. • Researchers, however, have shown that HIV remains present in hiding places such as the lymph nodes even in people who have been treated. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  20. HCV • Hepatitis C virus is a liver disease • After a needlestick or sharps exposure to HCV positive blood , about 1.8% healthcare workers will get infected with HCV. • Estimated 4.1 million (1.6%) Americans have been infected with HCV, of whom 3.2 million are chronically infected. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  21. HCV Long term effects of HCV: • Chronic infection: 75%-85% of infected persons • Cirrhosis: 20% of chronically infected persons • Deaths from chronic liver disease: 1%-5% of infected persons may die • Leading indication for liver transplant Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  22. jaundice fatigue dark urine abdominal pain  loss of appetite nausea HCV 80% of persons infected have no signs or symptoms for HCV. When present, symptoms may include: Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  23. HCV • Currently, there is no cure for hepatitis C, and no effective vaccine is currently available. • National recommendations for the control of occupational exposure to HCV rely more on the prevention of transmission. In addition, several blood tests that measure either antibodies to HCV or HCV-RNA are available for hepatitis C screening. These tests are useful in determining current immune status and monitoring ongoing infection. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  24. How does a bloodborne infection occur? How might I get exposed in the workplace? Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  25. Chain of Infection Infection Control = Break any link in the chain Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  26. Modes of transmission of BBP • Percutaneous - the direct inoculation of infectious material by piercing through the skin barrier (needlestick or other accidental injury with a sharp, contaminated object) Penetration by contaminated sharps is the most common mode of transmission of bloodborne pathogens in the workplace. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  27. Modes of transmission of BBP • Direct inoculation - exposure of blood or OPIM to pre-existing lesions, cuts, abrasions, or rashes (dermatitis) provides a route of entry into the body. • Mucous membrane contact - splashing blood or serum into an individual's unprotected eyes, nose, or mouth in clinical or laboratory settings poses a genuine risk of infection. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  28. Duties that might put you at risk for an occupational exposure: • Perform drawing of blood from human patients or animals • Process blood for experimentation • Work with human or animal blood or body fluids • Use unfixed tissue in preparations or experimentation • Work in an area where HIV or HBV research is being performed or produced • Clean glassware contaminated with blood or OPIM Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  29. Duties that might put you at risk for an occupational exposure: • Dispose of waste contaminated with blood or OPIM • Transport blood or OPIM • Work in a laboratory where equipment or work benches can become contaminated • Handle containers of infectious wastes • Clean blood spills, including dried blood • Handle laundry that contains sharps or is soiled with blood or OPIM • Perform lifesaving procedures Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  30. Risk Factors for Infection • Pathogenicity of organism • Dose (how much blood or infectious agent) • Route of entry (injection vs. contact with mucous membrane or open wound) • Host susceptibility • Work practices Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  31. Now that we have reviewed how an exposure can occur, let’s look at how to prevent exposure. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  32. Occupational Exposure Prevention The risk of occupational exposure can be minimized or eliminated using a combination of engineering and work practice controls, personal protective clothing and equipment, training, medical surveillance, HBV vaccination, warning signs or labels, and other provisions described in this training section.   Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  33. Standard (Universal) Precautions • Guidelines to decrease the risk of occupational exposure to blood or body fluids • A system of infection control which assumes that every direct contact with body fluids is infectious and requires every employee exposed to direct contact with body fluids to be protected as though such body fluids were infected with a bloodborne pathogen • Provides adequate protection against bloodborne infections from both humans and animals Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  34. Employee Responsibilities • Completing training/orientation as required • Following the Exposure Control Plan and the Standard Precautions Policy • Using work practices, engineering controls, and personal protective equipment as outlined in the Exposure Control Plan • Obtaining the HBV vaccine or signing the declination form Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  35. Employee Responsibilities • Reporting exposure incidents to their supervisor and assisting the supervisor in completing First Report of Occupational Injury/Illness Form • Pursuing follow-up care after an occupational exposure Failure to follow these policies could result in disciplinary action. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  36. Exposure Control Plan • Written plan provided to eliminate or minimize occupational exposure to BBP. • Section 40 of the Tulane University EH&S Policies and Procedures Manual • Can be obtained from OEHS (11th Floor Tidewater) or on OEHS website listed above • Reviewed annually Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  37. Exposure Control Plan Updates include: • Changes in technology that reduce/eliminate exposure (engineering controls) • Annual documentation of consideration and implementation of safer medical devices • Input from non-managerial employees (who are responsible for direct patient care) in selecting and evaluating safer medical devices Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  38. Engineering Controls • Sharps with Engineered Sharps Injury Protection (SESIP)– a non-needle sharp or needle with a built-in safety feature or mechanism that effectively reduces the risk of an exposure incident • Examples include: Self-sheathing syringe Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  39. More Examples of Engineered Sharps Safety Devices In use After use Retractable needle technology Retractable lancets Add-ons (needle covers) Self-blunting needles

  40. Engineering Controls • Needleless Systems = Device that does not use a needle for: • collection of body fluids • administration of medication/fluids • any other procedure with potential percutaneous exposure to a contaminated sharp Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  41. Work Practice Controls • Contaminated needles/sharps shall not be bent, recapped or removed • Use puncture-resistant sharps • container for disposal of sharps • No mouth pipetting • Decontaminate surfaces and equipment Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  42. Work Practice Controls • No food/drink/smoking, handling of contact lenses, or application of cosmetics in work area where there is potential for exposure • Minimize splashing, spraying, spattering, and generation of droplets • Use secondary containment for transport, shipping, or storage of containers Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  43. Handwashing • Employees must wash their hands immediately or as soon as feasible after removal of gloves or other personal protective equipment. • Wash as soon as possible if gross contamination occurs • Alternate methods: • Antiseptic towelettes • Waterless handwashing gels Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  44. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) PPE is appropriate only if it does not permit blood/OPIM to pass through and/or reach the employee’s clothing, skin, eyes, mouth, or other mucous membranes under normal use. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  45. Personal Protective Equipment • Gloves (latex or nonlatex) • When to use them: • when there is reasonable anticipation of employee hand contact with blood, OPIM, mucous membranes, or non-intact skin • when performing vascular access procedures • when handling or touching contaminated surfaces or items. • Remove prior to leaving the work area and discard as biohazard waste Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  46. Latex Allergies Latex gloves have proven effective in preventing transmission of many infectious diseases to health care workers. However, for some workers, exposures to latex may result in allergic reactions. For further reading: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/latex/ http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/latexallergy/index.html Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  47. Personal Protective Equipment • Gowns, aprons, fluid-resistant clothing • Face shields, eye protection (safety glasses, goggles) • Respirators • Surgical caps, shoe covers Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  48. Even though the use of PPE is very important in controlling exposure to BBPs, it is your last line of defense against exposure if engineering and work practice controls fail. Do not rely only on PPE for protection. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  49. Training • Training is required: • at the time of initial employment and assignment • (or transfer) to job tasks where occupational exposure may occur • within one year of the employee's previous training and annually thereafter (if the employee remains in an at-risk position) • when changes such as modification of tasks or procedures or institution of new tasks or procedures affect the employee's potential for occupational exposures, and as new standards for safe work practices evolve Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)

  50. HBV Vaccination • FREE to employee - paid for by your department if you are at high-risk for exposure • If you initially refuse the vaccine, you may change your mind later and still receive it. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health and Safety (OEHS)