Gendering PeacePROPOSAL FOR A POSITION PAPER OF EWL ON WOMEN, CONFLICT AND UN SC RESOLUTION 1325Rada Boric, European Women’s Lobby
KEY POINTS • Conflicts and wars are GENDERED processes • Conflicts and wars have disproportional impact on women and children, particularly the girl child. • Women are not seen as equal in contributing to the democratic development and creating human security for all.
Participation of women in peaceful conflict resolution (EP Resolution, 2000) Resolution 1385 of the Council of Europe on “Conflict Prevention and Resolution: the Role of Women” (2004) • Council operational paper on the implementation of SCR 1325 in the ESDP (2005) • A roadmap for equality between women and men 2006-2010 (2006) Report on the situation of womenin armed conflicts and their role in the reconstruction and democratic process in post-conflict countries (2006) Checklist to ensure gender mainstreaming and implementation of UNSCR 1325 in the planning and conduct of ESDP Operations (2006) Report on women in international politics (2006) Council conclusions on promoting gender equality and gender mainstreaming in crisis management (2006) Gender, Peace and Security Policy within EUDocuments to Refer to: The EU was created to ensure lasting peace in Europe
UN SC Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security (2000) • Principal international instrument which incorporates and mandates a gender perspective in all aspects of peacebuilding. • A Gender perspective must be mainstreamed throughout the peace processes, peace accords/agreements and peacekeeping operations
The UN Resolution 1325 stresses four main areas of concern: • The participation of women in peacebuilding • The inclusion of a gender perspective in peace processes and training to promote gender perspective in peace building • The protection of women from violence in crisis and war areas, especially from rape • The inclusion of gender perspective in UN reports and mechanisms for the implementation of peace agreements
How can the UN SC Resolution 1325 be effective? • Increasing women’s involvement in peacebuilding/ promotion measures; • Recognizing the ways in which women and men are affected differently by conflict; • Preventing gender-specific violence against women and girls and protecting the rights and needs of women and girls in armed conflict; • Developing and implementing National Action Plans; • Assuring gender budgeting; • Setting identifiable benchmark and time lines for implementation
National Action Plans • The UN system has developed a 1325 Action Plan as the best way to translate objectives of the Resolution 1325 into reality. • Only six EU countries have develop NAPs: UK, Denmark, Sweden, Austria, The Netherlands and Spain, and two non-EU countries: Switzerland and Norway. Canada is the only country outside Europe. • The majority of these national action plans fail to include gender budgeting, identifiable benchmarks and/or timelines for the implementation • legal instruments are in place, including developed national action plans, the mechanisms for implementing still needs to be developed.
The role of women’s NGOs • To disseminate information about Resolution 1325 to national and regional stake holders involved in decision-making • To publish shadow reports on gender perspectives on conflicts • To offer gender specific training for UN and other international and national personnel • To offer training to build women’s capacities to participate in decision-making at all levels • To encourage women’s organizations at all levels to prepare and support candidates for decision-making positions, including refugee women • To lobby that the General Assembly prioritize the budget for gender mainstreaming in peace operations and engage personnel with gender expertise • To lobby for establishing gender focal points/gender units and utilize gender experts in all peacebuilding missions
Preconditions for sustainable peace and human security • Gender Equality Platform for Action, CEDAW and SC Resolution 1325 articulated that equality and peace cannot be achieved without the equal participation of women and full integration of gender perspectives. Commitment to combat violence against women, increase girls’ access to education, ensure women’s equal participation in decision-making and access to reproductive rights, with firm benchmarks for action. • Gender Mainstreaming UN system has to strengthen gender mainstreaming, as mandated, ensuring that the structural changes and financial and human resources within the UN promote gender equality. • Development Peace, development and human rights are inextricably linked. Link between conflict/war and poverty, as well as conflict prevention and development has to be considered and conditions tackled. Sustainable development should be reinforced by the political and financial commitments as a form of prevention. • Human Rights Need to strengthen human rights mechanisms in the member states as well as within the UN and EU/CoE. Legal reform process must be based on gender mainstreaming human rights.
Disarmament In the framework of human security, decisions on the disarmament of all weapons, including small arms and light weapons and nuclear weapons, should be carried out. • Demilitarisation does not only mean reduction of military expenditure and control of availability of armaments, but the shift in the politics – promotion of non-violent forms of conflict transformation and promotion of the respect of human rights. • Civil Society Women’s NGos proved to perform important role in peacebuilding processes and they role must be re-enforced. The states and the UN cannot be effective in their commitments toward sustainable peace without meaningful engagement from civil society organizations and strong partnership between member states and civil society. Consistent with the provisions of UNSC Resolution 1325, gender analysis of all situations off armed conflict should be performed.
EWL Recommendations • Re-affirm commitment for the implementation of UNSC Resolution 1325 and European Parliament’s resolution 2000/2025 on the Participation of Women in Peaceful Conflict Resolution. Development of an EU-wide Action Plan on SCR 1325 and development of NAPs by all EU members is of urgent matter. SUGGESTION National action plans in conflict-affected areas are crucial for the process of peace building. Support for their creation and implementation by national and international NGOs is recommended. • Call upon Governments, relevant UN agencies and other intergovernmental bodies to provide full financial support for implementation of Resolution 1325, as well as adequate and sustainable funding for women’s equal participation in peace building, conflict prevention and conflict resolution processes. Strict benchmarksfor the implementation needed, including gender budgeting and time lines for implementation
Conduct a mapping and review of gender issues within EU peace and security policy and programming; assess gaps and identify areas of EU strategic priority related to SCR 1325 and EP resolution 2000/2025. Evaluate implementation of SCR 1325/national action plans. • Actively promote the equal participation of women in conflict prevention, management and conflict resolution and in post-conflict peace building, by developing the capacity of the EU within the common security and defence policy to respond to conflict prevention and to promote the concept of human security. • Place women’s human rights at the core of donor policies for reconstruction and development by : building support systems and investment in specialised services for the victims of rape and trauma in the wake of gender-based violence perpetrated during conflict/war periods
Provide amandate within the common security and defence policy to, inter alia: co-ordinate the EU with a focus on non-military crisis management; ensure the drafting, implementation and monitoring of codes of conduct for military and civilian factions intervening on behalf of the EU in areas of armed conflict; and ensure that at least 40%of women are included in all reconciliation, peacekeeping, peace-enforcement, peace building and conflict prevention posts • Provide clear gender focused “Code of Conduct”on the standards of conduct of military and civilian peacekeeping and humanitarian staff while on mission in areas of armed conflict. • Make funds available to women so they can seek redress through the mechanisms of international law in the aftermath of armed conflicts. • Make funds available to women to participate and take leadership in reconstructing community life and access to infrastructure such as water supply, electricity, schools, hospitals, roads as well as (re) building legal and administrative structures of the State
Condemn all forms of violence of gender-based violence in situations of armedconflicts and post-conflict societies. Women and girls should have access to redress through the mechanism of international law in the aftermath of the conflict. Support to the Tribunal for the cases of gendered war violence. • Grant protection to women who flee their countries: grant women asylum by recognising gender-based violence ; adopt the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees guidelines on Sexual and gender-based violence against refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons: Guide for Prevention and Response; adopt within the process of EU harmonisation of; asylum policies, the UN guidelines on “International Protection – Gender Related Persecution within the context of Article 1A(2);provide annual disaggregated data
Support The International Criminal Court (ICC) to pursue perpetrators of crimes committed against women as crimes against humanity. • Invest in civil society, by supporting women’s organisations, as a means of conflict prevention. • Appoint EU Rapporteur on women’s rights to monitor implementation of gender policies in Europe, including the implementation of the policies on resolution 1325. • Develop and support alternative National Action Plans and alternative/parallel Women’s Security Councils to promote women in peace-building.