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Bellwork read the information below and follow the directions as given
Bellwork: Read the information below and follow the directions as given.

Imagine that you are traveling in Madagascar when you find the flower tothe left. You see that it has alarge spur containing nectar in the tip. You remember learning in science class that some moths feed on nectar.Draw a picture of what you think a moth would look like that feeds on this plant.

Spur

  • Now answer this question:

  • How do you think natural selection could help the flower and the moth evolve together?


Homework tonight
HOMEWORK TONIGHT!

  • Watch the video “Cladograms” by Bozeman Science.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ouZ9zEkxGWg

  • Complete the homework page you picked up on the way in.

  • Bring your homework to class tomorrow!


Bellwork read the information below and follow the directions as given

CO: I will evaluate and analyze mechanisms and patterns of evolution.LO: I will take notes about evolution, and discuss scenarios with my group.


Bellwork read the information below and follow the directions as given

KEY CONCEPT Evolution occurs in patterns.


Remember evolution through natural selection is not random
REMEMBER: Evolution through natural selection is not random.

  • Natural selection can have direction.

  • The effects of natural selection add up over time.


The 3 patterns we re going to discuss today are
The 3 patterns we’re going to discuss today are…

  • Coevolution

  • Convergent Evolution

  • Divergent Evolution

    • We’ll also look at how these might be seen in the fossil record



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1. Co-evolution

  • Sometimes organisms that are closely connected to one another by ecological interactions evolve together.

  • An evolutionary change in one organism may also be followed by a corresponding change in another organism.

  • The process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other over time is called coevolution.


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Coevolution

Species A evolves an adaptation in response to species B

Species B evolves in response to the adaptation of species A


Coevolution can occur with species that help or compete with each other
Coevolution can occur with species that help or compete with each other


Mimicry is another example of coevolution
Mimicry is another example of coevolution

  • Mimicry occurs when one organism evolves to look like the other in order to benefit itself. The mimic benefits from the situation while the organism it mimics is unaffected.

    Example: Orchid flowers

    that mimic female wasps



2 convergent evolution
2. Convergent Evolution

  • Convergent evolution describes evolution toward similar traits in unrelated species.

  • When two species are similar in a particular characteristic, it’s only convergent evolution if their ancestors were not similar



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kit fox

red fox

ancestor


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leads to

leads to

leads to


Things to consider

So what about the fossil record?

Things to Consider:

  • Stasis - The organisms in the fossil record look the same from when they appear to when they disappear;

  • Sudden appearance - When a species does not arise by gradually changing steadily from its ancestors; it appears all at once and fully formed.

  • Sequential nature - Based on the layers of rock, we sequence organisms in the fossil record.

  • What might cause stasis or sudden appearance?


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http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T014608A.gifhttp://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T014608A.gif

WHICH PATTERN IS IT?

coevolution convergent evolution divergent evolution

The Galápagos finches evolved through natural

selection from a common ancestor into a wide

variety of different looking species with different

kinds of beaks

divergent evolution


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WHICH PATTERN IS IT?http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T014608A.gif

coevolution convergent evolution divergent evolution

Hummingbirds have a beak just the right length

to reach the nectar in a cardinal flower and as

they feed their foreheads bump into the pollen structure. Cardinal flowers are red which

hummingbirds can see, but bees can’t, and their

pollen structure is at just the right height for

the hummingbird to pick up pollen as it feeds.

coevolution


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WHICH PATTERN IS IT?http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T014608A.gif

coevolution convergent evolution divergent evolution

Whales, sharks, and penguins all have streamlined

bodies and fins/flipper for moving in water

even though they belong in different animal groups

(mammals, fish, and birds)

convergent evolution


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Beaver http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T014608A.gif

Beaver

Muskrat

Beaver andMuskrat

Coypu

NORTH AMERICA

Muskrat

SOUTH AMERICA

Capybara

Coypu

WHICH PATTERN IS IT?

coevolution convergent evolution divergent evolution

Beaver in North America and capybara in South America are closely related species living in very different

environments that have evolved to look differentover time.

divergent evolution

BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine Pearson Publishing


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WHICH PATTERN IS IT?http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/T014608A.gif

coevolution convergent evolution divergent evolution

The tortoises on the Galapagos islands share a common ancestor, but over time they have become

adapted for obtaining food in different habitats

on different islands by having different neck lengths

divergent evolution