African Americans during the Progressive Movement Standard 4.5 E.Q. Where did African Americans travel after Reconstruction?
Migration of African Americans • Many freedmen stayed in the South after the Civil War. Some did cause African Americans to migrate; • Great Migration: • African Americans left the south due to discrimination in the early 1900’s. • Poor crop yield due to soil exhaustion and the boll weevil (Crop rotation & fertilizer) • Discrimination
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) • Supreme Court ruled that separation of the races in public accommodations was legal, thus establishing the “separate but equal” clause. • Racial segregation for the next 60 years until Brown v. Board of Education
Other Changes • Most freedman had stayed in the South immediately after the Civil War. • Later in the 1890’s the migration of African – Americans from the South was the result of poor cotton yields. • As farm prices fell, African Americans joined other farmers in the move to the cities for job opportunities.
Other Changes • In addition African Americans headed to the West in hope for land and to the cities of the North and Midwest. • Discrimination still existed in cities as well with the belief of firing them first, and hiring them last. • Immigrants and African Americans did make up a work force for industry.
Other changes • They were relegated to the least desirable part of the city in segregated neighborhoods. • Increased during WWI as more jobs became available and the movement of African American culture to the cities of the North and Midwest would result in a cultural renaissance in the post World War I period. (Harlem Renaissance)