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Aquatic Nuisance Species in Ballast Water: Regional Issues & Activities Presented by: Marilyn Leland, Deputy Director Lisa Ka’aihue, Project Manager Citizens promoting environmentally safe operation of the Alyeska terminal and associated tankers.
What is PWSRCAC? • Independent non-profit organization formed in 1989 after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. • A local voice for communities and citizens on oil industry decisions that affect them. • Organization is guided by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) and our contract with Alyeska.
Disabled Tanker Towing Study PWS Tanker Risk Assessment Double-Hulled Tankers Escort Tugs Ice Detection Radar Vapor Control Accomplishments
Working Relationships Today, the oil industry and regulators consult PWSRCAC and vice versa on oil transportation and related environmental issues.
Smithsonian research with PWSRCAC: Analysis of Coastal Invasions • Nationwide Analysis of Coastal Invasions • Literature-Based Synthesis and Online Database of All Reported NIS • Field-Based Surveys to Provide Standardized Measures and Baseline to Track: (a) New Invasions Over Time (b) Patterns of Spread • Used to Guide and Evaluate Management strategies Sampling in tanker ballast water
Conducting the Surveys: Methods Panels are constructed of PVC plastic and wood to attract species that settle on hard surfaces and those that bore into wooden structures. 20 PVC panels and 2 wood blocks were deployed at 10 different blocks per embayment October 2004-KJL
Conducting the Survey: Methods ▪Panels were placed 1m below mean low water and attached to fixed structures already within the embayment ▪They were then retrieved after an approximate “soak time” of 3 months in the water
Processing the data ▪Individual organisms of each different morphotype were identified, collected, and preserved. ▪These specimens were then identified to species by SERC personnel and by outside taxonomists October 2004-KJL
Field ResultsFrom 2000 Final Project Report • 24 non-indigenous species have been introduced in Alaska • 15 species recorded in Prince William Sound • 13 species in Kachemak Bay and Cook Inlet
Other Research Activities • Ballast Water Exchange Experiments • Green Crab Laboratory Studies • Potential research: hull fouling
Future Project Directions • Less emphasis on supporting baseline research • More emphasis on: • Ballast water treatment technologies • Green crab monitoring • Legislative issues
Coordination • Member: Western Regional Panel of the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force • Hold seat on the Invasive Species Advisory Committee • ISAC advisory to the National Invasive Species Council • Host: Non-Indigenous Species Working Group in Alaska 2001 Zebra Mussel Distribution
Invasive Species: For more information… • PWSRCAC: www.pwsrcac.org • Smithsonian Environmental Research Center: www.serc.si.edu/labs/marine_invasions/index.jsp • Western Regional Panel: answest.fws.gov • State of Alaska Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plan • www.anstaskforce.gov/AK-Final-ANS%20plan%20governor%2010-4%20final.htm • Invasivespecies.gov: www.invasivespecies.gov • Global Ballast Water Management Programme globallast.imo.org