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PAMRO 2008 Lagos. SAARF OUTDOOR. First Results from GPS Measurement Survey. South Africa. This Presentation Covers ●●●. Industry Requirements Outdoor Methodology Universe of Sites Processing of Data Results Next Steps in Progress. Industry Requirements.

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PAMRO 2008



First Results from GPS Measurement Survey

South Africa

This Presentation Covers ●●●
  • Industry Requirements
  • Outdoor Methodology
  • Universe of Sites
  • Processing of Data
  • Results
  • Next Steps in Progress
Industry Requirements
  • SAARF Outdoor Tender awarded to Nielsen 2006 - 2008
  • Specifications included:
        • Electronic Measurement using a GPS device
        • Providing an Outdoor measurement that is
          • accurate
          • reliable
          • comparable with other media
        • Synergies with SAARF Readership and Radio Survey
Outdoor GPS Device
  • The Nielsen Personal Outdoor Device (Npod) was used
  • The Npod was developed in conjunction with RDP Associates, with thorough testing
  • To accurately Track respondent travel patterns
  • Npod strengths include:
          • More advanced chip set than commercial units for greater sensitivity
          • Size of a standard cellphone for ease of carrying
          • Sufficient memory to allow collection every few seconds over 9 days
          • Accurate measurement of location, time, speed and direction of travel
The Interview
  • The national readership and radio surveys provided the placement interview for Outdoor
  • At the end of the placement interview, respondents were asked to carry an Npod for 9 days
  • The Npod was then collected with the Radio Diary and self-completion questionnaires
  • Participants were asked to fill in a short daily travel log to be collected at the same time
  • Travel log data used as a post – processing comparative tool
Successful Field Placement
  • Was facilitated by:
  • Detailed Personal briefing of respondent by interviewer
  • Various Respondent Aids including :
    • Welcome Letter
    • Quick Instruction pamphlet
    • Frequently Asked Question document with interviewer's telephone number
    • Colour, laminated Magnetic Reminder card to be placed anywhere in the home
  • Respondents were also given a gift for participation (thermal travel mug)
  • On successful collection, the respondent was entered into a cash draw
  • Success rate was continuously monitored, with subsequent debriefing and rebriefing of interviewers
The Elepod
  • When travelling in a vehicle, the Npod needed to be placed on the dashboard or at the back window to ensure satellite reception
  • South Africa has a high incidence of theft from vehicles
  • In order to reassure respondents, Nielsen developed the Elepod to hide the Npod “in plain sight”
  • Very successful – no reported incidents of Npod loss through “smash and grab”
  • And the respondent got to keep his Elepod!
  • A sub-sample of SAARF AMPS (All Media and Products Survey) respondents were selected
  • Area – stratified probability sampling was used
  • Outdoor sub-sample was drawn by selecting every “nth” AMPS point (one male, one female) after a random start
  • The latest AMPS survey was analysed to obtain incidence of mains electricity by sub area, and the Outdoor contact sample was boosted appropriately
  • A cost-effective decision was made to cover selected provinces each year and build to a national picture over 3 years
Sampling (Cont.)


Sample Design


1 358





2 230



Eastern Cape

Western Cape


1 266

4 320




Free State

Northern Cape




The Universe
  • Adults (16 years or older), living in private households, with mains electricity, were selected from the host AMPS sample
  • For the 2006 survey, in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal, the Outdoor universe equated to 83% of the AMPS universe across these two provinces
  • Response rates were exceptionally high: 87% of Npods were recovered + useable from Gauteng + KwaZulu-Natal (2006)
The In-Tab Sample
  • On collection of Npods, the data was downloaded and sent to the U.S. for post-processing
  • “In-Tab” respondents were identified (i.e. respondents with at least 2 good days of usable Npod data, who were compliant with the survey rules of carrying the Npod, whenever travelling outside the home)
  • The final In-Tab sample size in 2006 was 82,5% of the realised sample
  • 87.8% of In-Tab respondents travelled across 9 days
  • 12.2% of In-Tab respondents had no travel across 9 days
  •  Compares to AMPS (15%)
  • 77.5% of In-Tab respondents passed at least one Outdoor Site during the 9 days
  •  Compares to AMPS (81.7%)
  • The average weighted In-Tab days per respondent was 7.4 (out of 9 Days)
Selection of Sites
  • The survey covered all static Out of Home media that are located “out of doors” and that belong to participating media owners
  • These media owners supplied all their site information in an electronic database
  • Training on geo-coding of sites was offered to media owners by Nielsen
  • Site databases were checked by Nielsen for completion and range validity
  • In addition, a 10% site check was undertaken by Nielsen across media owner, area and site type
  • Total number of sites in 2006 survey = 5 955
  • 3 824 in Gauteng
  • 2 131 in KwaZulu-Natal
Travel vs Passage Data
  • Travel Data
  • GPS data from In-Tab respondents was converted to travel data via a sophisticated proprietary software system, which addressed “urban canyons” as well as small roads running parallel to large thoroughfares
  • Passage Data
  • Respondent travel data from Npod was converted into passage data by integrating travel data with the database of Out of Home Sites



Visibility Zone

Opportunity to See

  • “Opportunity to See” (OTS) a site is defined as “Respondent is in the geographic area of the Site location, has a potential line of site, and is travelling in a direction favourable to the site”
  • Creation of the concept of a Visibility Zone
  • A respondent was credited with opportunity to see the site if he/she:
    • travelled through the visibility zone
    • in a direction favourable to the site face
    • on or near the primary road associated with the site


Post Processing Verification
  • Following the initial processing of Site data and production of Passage data, potential anomalies were investigated:
    • Sites with zero passage
    • Sites with invalid primary road designation
    • Street segments with high range of passage
    • Nearby sites with varying passage
  • Where problems were revealed, these were corrected either by Media owners or by Nielsen
  • The updated master site database was then reprocessed and final anomalies checked and corrected
Data Smoothing
  • Due to sample limitations and certain areas with no sample, 21% of boards had zero exposure, and some had extreme levels
  • This restricted analysis capabilities (e.g. geographical subdivisions) and increased campaign variability
  • Sites with zero passage also needed to be imputed
  • Data were smoothed so that:
    • Average exposures by area by site type were unchanged
    • Extremes were reduced and zeroes eliminated
    • Results were more logical and usable, but unchanged overall
  • The Smoothing reduced campaign variability by 50%
Release Datafile
  • In South Africa, Third Party Processors provide the Industry with Media Scheduling Analysis Software
  • A number of these have purchased the Outdoor Release Datafiles from SAARF
  • This Release Datafile included the modelled passage for sites with no sample data
  • Initial feedback from media owners has been very positive
Npod vs AMPS
  • Demographic profiles of exposure were comparable with AMPS
    • Urban dwellers
    • 35 - 49 year olds
    • Working, Educated, Higher income respondents
  • Please note that all the data in the slides that follow are smoothed
top line results compare well with amps
Top-Line Results Compare well with AMPS

“Billboard” Weekly Reach %

  • AMPS : Recalled data
  • Npod : Measured actual weekly exposure
average daily exposures
Average Daily Exposures
  • Overall average daily exposures = 9.8 per day
    • Urban = 10.6 per day /

Greater Johannesburg = 20 exposures per day

    • Rural = 5.8 per day
  • Differences by demographic are similar to reach, but usually a bit more extreme
Next Steps

in Progress

outdoor year 3 2008
Outdoor – Year 3 - 2008
  • The last stage of the survey is currently in field
  • In the provinces of:Free State Northern Cape and Mpumalanga
  • When this is complete, we will be able to build to a national picture for South Africa!