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1. המצוקה בקרב ההומוסקסואלים – חיצונית או אינהרנטית? 2. האטיולוגיה: מודלים ביולוגיים מול סביבתיים 3. שינוי האוריינט PowerPoint Presentation
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1. המצוקה בקרב ההומוסקסואלים – חיצונית או אינהרנטית? 2. האטיולוגיה: מודלים ביולוגיים מול סביבתיים 3. שינוי האוריינט

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1. המצוקה בקרב ההומוסקסואלים – חיצונית או אינהרנטית? 2. האטיולוגיה: מודלים ביולוגיים מול סביבתיים 3. שינוי האוריינט - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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1. המצוקה בקרב ההומוסקסואלים – חיצונית או אינהרנטית? 2. האטיולוגיה: מודלים ביולוגיים מול סביבתיים 3. שינוי האוריינט
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  1. 1. המצוקה בקרב ההומוסקסואלים – חיצונית או אינהרנטית? 2. האטיולוגיה: מודלים ביולוגיים מול סביבתיים 3. שינוי האוריינטציה המינית – אפשרי? כדאי? הומוסקסואליות, בריאות נפשותקינות פוליטיתאבשלום אליצורהוצג בקורסים "הומוסקסואליות" בתוכנית למטפלים מיניים, אוניברסיטת בר-אילן, 2004-2007ו"מין, מיניות ומה שביניהם" בבי"ס לרפואה ע"ש סאקלר, אוניברסיטת תל-אביב, 2004-2010 Copyleft 2010הרשות נתונה לכל אדם לעשות במצגת זו שימוש כרצונו

  2. התנצלות על הרושם הפטרוני We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain undeniable rights, that among these rights are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. מגילת העצמאות של ארה"ב

  3. התנצלות על ההעדפה הגברית • יש פחות חומר מחקרי על לסביות • הלסביוּת כנראה דיפוזית יותר • הבעייתיות קטנה יותר

  4. ראשית חכמה: הפרדת מדע מאידיאולוגיה מה תשיב להורה מציק? "הרי יש חוקרים שאומרים שאתה יכול להשתנות!" "לא נכון!כולם אומרים שאי-אפשר לשנות נטייה מינית!"(לא עומד במבחן הביקורת, מערבב מדע וערכים, לא משרת את המטרה) "כן, מי שמאוד רוצה יכול להשתנות. אני פשוט לא רוצה!"(תשובה ערכית, בלתי-תלויה במחקר, עמידה על זכות האדם לחיות את חייו כרצונו)

  5. מצוקה נפשית בקרב הומוסקסואלים 1. Herrell, R., Goldberg, J., True, W.R., Ramakrishnan, V., Lyons, M., Eisen, S., Tsuang, M.T. (1999) Sexual Orientation and Suicidality: A Co-twin Control Study in Adult Men. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 56: 867-874. Gays prone to suicide 6.5 times more than co-twins. 2. Remafedi, G., Farrow, J., and Deisher, R. (1991). Risk Factors for Attempted Suicide in Gay and Bisexual Youth. Pediatrics, 87(6): 869-875. The risk of suicide decreases by 80% for each year that a young man delays homosexual/bisexual self-labeling.Suicide attempts were not explained by experiences with discrimination, violence, loss of friendship, or current personal attitude towards homosexuality. 3. Ross, M.W. (1988): Homosexuality and mental health: A cross-cultural review. J. Homosex, 15(1/2): 131-152. Comorbidity unrelated to the culture within which the homosexual person lives. 4. de Graaf, R.,  Sandfort, T.G.M. and  ten Have, M. (2006): Suicidality and sexual orientation: Differences between men and women in a general population-based sample from the Netherlands. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35: 253-262. Homosexual men differed from their heterosexual counterparts on all four suicide symptoms (Odds Ratio [OR] ranging from 2.58 to 10.23, with higher ORs for more severe symptoms), and on the sum total of the four symptoms; homosexual women only differed from heterosexual women on suicide contemplation (OR=2.12). 5. Cochran, B. N & Cauce, A. M (2006). Characteristics of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 30: 135-146. LGBT clients used drugs of abuse more frequently than heterosexuals, and took psychotropic medications in twice the proportion of heterosexual clients. Significantly more likely to be victims of domestic violence.

  6. גורמי התאבדות אינהרנטיים 1. Saghir, M.T., Robins, E. (1973) Male and Female Homosexuality: A Comprehensive Investigation. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. 2/3 suicides due to breakup 2. Bell, A. P., & Weinberg, M. S. (1978) Homosexualities: A Study of Diversity Among Men and Women. New York: Simon & Shuster. Major reason for suicide attempts was the breakup of relationships. In second place was the inability to accept oneself.

  7. ביטוי נוסף של האובדנות: “Bareback” and “Bug Hunters” למה מתעקשים צעירים, חרף מאמצי הקהילה, לקיים מין לא-בטוח?

  8. "נון-אקסקלוסיביות" 1. Shernoff, M. (2006). Negotiated non-monogamy and male couples. Family Process, 45(4), 407-418. 2. Johnson, T. W., & Keren, M. S. (1996). Creating and maintaining boundaries in male couples. In J. Laird & R. J. Green (Eds.), Lesbians and gays in couples and families: A handbook for therapists (pp. 231-250). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. (המלצת המחברים להומוסקסואל הנפגע מאי-נאמנות בן-זוגו:ללמוד להתגבר על ה-"bias" לנאמנות) לא, תודה!

  9. "עשרה אחוז מהאוכלוסייה"? • Reisman, J.A. & Eichel, E.W. (1990). Kinsey, Sex and Fraud: The Indoctrination of a People. An Investigation into the Human Sexuality Research of Alfred C. Kinsey. Lafayette, LA: Huntington House. • A study of 5,514 Canadian college and university students under the age of 25 found 1% who were homosexual and 1% who were bisexual. (King et al., 1988). • A study of 8,337 British men found that 6.1% had had "any homosexual experience" and 3.6% had "1+ homosexual partner ever." (Johnson et al., 1992). • A French study of 20,055 people found that 4.1% of the men and 2.6% of the women had at least one occurrence of intercourse with person of the same sex during their lifetime. (ANRS, 1992). • A Danish random survey found that 2.7% of the 1,373 men who responded to their questionnaire had homosexual experience (intercourse). (Melbye, 1992). • The National Health Interview Survey does household interviews of the civilian non-institutionalized population. The results of three of these surveys, done in 1990-1991 and based on over 9,000 responses each time, found between 2-3% of the people responding said yes to a set of statements which included "You are a man who has had sex with another man at some time since 1977, even one time." (Dawson, Hardy, 1990-1992) • In a random survey of 6,300 Norwegians, 3.5% of the men and 3% of the women reported that they had had a homosexual experience sometime in their life. (Sundet et al., 1988).

  10. "כך נולדת"AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION FACT SHEET [!] MAY 2000 Q. Is It Possible To Change One’s Sexual Orientation (“Reparative Therapy”)? A. There is no published scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of “reparative therapy” as a treatment to change one’s sexual orientation, nor is it included in the APA’s Task Force Report, Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders. More importantly, altering sexual orientation is not an appropriate goal of psychiatric treatment. Some may seek conversion to heterosexuality because of the difficulties that they encounter as a member of a stigmatized group. Clinical experience indicates that those who have integrated their sexual orientation into a positive sense of self-function are at a healthier psychological level than those who have not.

  11. כולם מיישרים קו • ASSOCIATION RESOLUTIONS OPPOSING REPARATIVE THERAPY • American Academy of Pediatrics • American Federation of Teachers • American Medical Association • American Psychiatric Association • American Psychological Association • The Interfaith Alliance • National Association of School Psychologists • National Association of Social Workers • National Association of Secondary School Principals • National Education Association • New Ways Ministries • People for the American Way

  12. להשתנות? • "זה נורמאלי" • "אתה כזה ואין מה לעשות" • "כבר הוכח שזה גנטי" • "תלמד לקבל את עצמך" • (אתה נוירוטי!)

  13. "הוכח שזה גנטי" Xq28 - Thanks for the genes, Mum The T-shirt worn by the San Francisco gay made it clear: A single piece of DNA - from the q28 region of his X chromosome, inherited from his mother - was the sole cause of his sexual orientation

  14. קצת נתונים • Bailey, J. M., & Pillard, R. C. (1991) A Genetic Study of Male Sexual Orientation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48: 1089-1096. (caveat: volunteer bias) • MZ twin: 52 % • DZ twin: 22 % • Brother: 9.2% • Adopted brother: 11 %

  15. קצת נתונים • Bailey, J. M., Dunne, M.P., & Martin, N. G. (2000): Genetic and Environmental influences on sexual orientation and its correlates in an Australian twin sample. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78: 524-536. • MZ twin (female) 30% • MZ twin (male) 38% (discordant twins viewed family situations differently)

  16. קצת נתונים • Hershberger, S. L. (1997): A twin registry study of male and female sexual orientation. Journal of Sex Research 34: 212-222. (caveat: only unmarried) • MZ twin (female) 48% • MZ twin (male) 0%

  17. קצת נתונים • Kirk, K. M., Bailey, J. M., Dunne, M, P., & Martin, N. G. (2000) Measurement models for sexual orientation in a community twin sample. Behavior Genetics, 30: 345-356. • MZ twin (female) 50-60% • MZ twin (male) 30%

  18. ניסיון רפליקציה שנכשל Mustanski, B.S., DuPree, M.G., Nievergelt, C.M., Bocklandt, S., Schork, N.J. & Hamer, D.H. (2005). “A genomewide scan of male sexual orientation.” Human Genetics, מודים כי לא הצליחו למצוא קורלציה לשלושת האזורים המבטיחים ביותר בגנום ממחקריהם הקודמים!

  19. המחקר האחרון:מוכיח?ממש לא Santtila, P., Sandnabba, N.K., Harlaar, N., Varjonen, M., Alanko, K., & von der Pahlen, B. (2008). Potential for homosexual response is prevalent and genetic. Biological Psychology, 77(1): 102-105. Genetics Shared Environment Nonshared Environment Activity Men 27% (2.7-38) 0% (0-18) 73% (62-85) Women 16% (8.3-24) 0% (0-3.6) 84% (76-91) Potential Men 37% (12-47) 0% (0-19) 63% (53-73) Women 46% (32-52) 0% (0-11) 54% (48-60) שימו לב: א) לאחוזי השגיאה בסוגריים ב) לקריטריון המרחיב:"לו הייתה לך הזדמנות לשכב עם בן-מינך המושך אותך בלי שיידעו,האם היית עושה את זה?" מסקנה: הרכיב הגנטי נותר שולי חרף הכותרת הסנסציונית

  20. הסקירות המקיפות ביותר 1:מוטה נגד N. & B. Whitehead (1999) My Genes Made Me Do It! Lafayette, LA: Huntington House. “The average in the population is 10% genetic and 90% environmental. This is not fixed - change is possible.”

  21. הסקירות המקיפות ביותר 2:מוטה בעד Mustanski, B. S., Chivers, M. L., & Bailey, J. M. (2002;) A critical review of recent biological research on human sexual orientation. Annual Review of Sex Research, 13: 89-140. “Consistent evidence that genes influence sexual orientation, but molecular research has not yet produced compelling evidence for specific genes.”

  22. הסקירות המקיפות ביותר 3:מוטה בעד Rahman, K, & Wilson, G. D. (2005) Born Gay? The Psychobiology of Human Sexual Orientation. London: Peter Owen. “Amidst the conflicting findings, it seems that, whether operationalised in terms of gender atypicality or as a primary trait, sexual orientation has a substantial genetic component, and that this may be located on the X chromosome” (הדגשות שלי).

  23. דבר ראש פרויקט הגנום האנושי:Francis S. Collins, former director of the National Human Genome Research Institute "An area of particularly strong public interest is the genetic basis of homosexuality. Evidence from twin studies does in fact support the conclusion that heritable factors play a role in male homosexuality. However, the likelihood that the identical twin of a homosexual male will also be gay is about 20% (compared with 2-4 percent of males in the general population), indicating that sexual orientation is genetically influenced but not hardwired by DNA, and that whatever genes are involved represent predispositions, not predeterminations." (ההדגשות שלי)

  24. "כך נולדת" – טוב, לא ממש כך... American Psychological Association "Answers to Your Questions about Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality“ (March 2008) AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION FACT SHEET [!] MAY 2000 Q. Is It Possible To Change One’s Sexual Orientation (“Reparative Therapy”)? A. There is no published scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of “reparative therapy” as a treatment to change one’s sexual orientation, nor is it included in the APA’s Task Force Report, Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders. More importantly, altering sexual orientation is not an appropriate goal of psychiatric treatment. Some may seek conversion to heterosexuality because of the difficulties that they encounter as a member of a stigmatized group. Clinical experience indicates that those who have integrated their sexual orientation into a positive sense of self-function are at a healthier psychological level than those who have not. What causes a person to have a particular sexual orientation? There is no consensus among scientists about the exact reasons that an individual develops a heterosexual, bisexual, gay, or lesbian orientation. Although much research has examined the possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and cultural influences on sexual orientation, no findings have emerged that permit scientists to conclude that sexual orientation is determined by any particular factor or factors. Many think that nature and nurture both play complex roles; most people experience little or no sense of choice about their sexual orientation.

  25. נטייה מינית ומבנה המוח Allen, L. S., & Gorski, R. A. (1992) Sexual orientation and the size of the anterior commissure in the human brain. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA., 89: 7199­7202.

  26. נטייה מינית ומבנה המוח כנגד כל הטענות שבמוחו של ההומוסקסואל יש חלקים שגודלם קרוב יותר לזה שבמוח האישה מזה שבמוח הגבר, כבר היה צריך להיות מובן מאליו: הומוסקסואלים ככלל אינם "פחות גבריים" מסטרייטים!

  27. נטייה מינית ומבנה המוח LeVay, S. (1991) A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men. Science, 258: 1034-1037. (INAH (גרעינים אינטרסטיציאליים בהיפותלמוס האנטריורי LeVay, S. (1994) The Sexual Brain. Mass.: MIT Press. To many people, finding a difference in brain structure between gay and straight men is equivalent to proving that gay men are "born that way." Time and again I have been described as someone who "proved that homosexuality is genetic" or some such thing. I did not. My observations were made only on adults who had been sexually active for a considerable period of time. It is not possible, purely on the basis of my observations, to say whether the structural differences were present at birth, and later influenced the men to become gay or straight, or whether they arose in adult life, perhaps as a result of the men's sexual behavior. (P. 72 ההדגשות שלי)

  28. נטייה מינית ומבנה המוח Breedlove, S. M. (1997) Sex on the brain. Nature, 389: 801. הצפיפות והגודל של נוירונים מסוימים בגנגליונים השדרתיים של חולדות תלויים בתדירות ההזדווגויות. “These findings give us proof for what we theoretically know to be the case – that sexual experience can alter the structure of the brain, just as genes can alter it. [I]t is possible that differences in sexual behavior cause (rather than are caused by) differences in the brain.”

  29. נטייה מינית ומבנה המוח Teicher M.H., Andersen SL, Polcari A., Anderson C.M., Navalta C.P., Kim D.M. (2003) The neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 27(1-2): 33-44 חלקים במוח שנמצאו שונים אצל אנשים שעברו התעללות ו\או הזנחה בילדותם: hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, vermis, corpus calosum

  30. נטייה מינית ומבנה המוח Rogers, L.J. (1999) Sexing the Brain. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ליקוק אברי המין של גורי חולדה זכרים ע"י האם: גידול בממדי הגרעין INAH-3 (הגרעין שמצא לה-ואי!) והתנהגות זכרית טיפוסית. אנשים מדברים יותר אל תינוקות הלבושים ורוד מאשר אל אלו בכחול.

  31. ראיות מתחום הנוירופסיכואנליזה Friedman, R.C., & Downey, J.I. (2002) Sexual Orientation and Psychoanalysis: Sexual Science and Clinical Practice. New York: Columbia University Press, "Fantasies may (temporarily) repair the more profound damage that occurs to self as a result of severe trauma. Fantasies may also soothe, enhance security, and bolster self-esteem or repair a sense of having been abandoned or rejected." (p. 6) "...a particular man's sexual orientation may indeed change if he happened to be one of the minority who appears to retain the capacity for sexual plasticity rather than rigid crystallization of sexual fantasies." (P. 18).

  32. עוד תזכורת מהביולוגיהאיזה "גן" גורם לאווזים לנסות להזדווג עם פרופסור חתיאר במקום עם אווזה נחמדה? Konrad Lorenz, 1903-1989, Nobel 1973

  33. ותזכורת מהאנתרופולוגיהאיזה "גן" גורם לגברים סיניים להתגרות מינית מכפות רגליים מעוותות לבלי-הכר, ולגברים בני מלאווי להימשך אל נשים עם שפתי מחבת?

  34. תקיפה מינית בילדות כגורם להומוסקסואליות בבגרות? 1 Johnson, R. L., Shrier, D. (1985) Sexual Victimization of Boys: Experience at an Adolescent Medicine Clinic. Journal of Adolescent Health Care 6: 372-376. 300 intercity boys 40 assaulted before puberty • 47.5% homosexual • 10% bisexual 260 not assaulted • 0% homosexual

  35. תקיפה מינית בילדות כגורם להומוסקסואליות בבגרות? 2. Johnson, R. L., Shrier, D (1987) Past sexual victimization by females of male patients in an adolescent medicine clinic population. Am. J. Psychiatry 144: 650-652 Molested boys (mean age 10) • 11 female-molested 3 (28%) homosexual • 14 male-molested 8 (57%) homosexual • 25 non-molested 2 (8%) homosexual

  36. תקיפה מינית בילדות כגורם להומוסקסואליות בבגרות? 3. Dimock, P. T. (1988). Adult males sexually abused as children: Characteristics and implications for treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence: 3: 203-216. • Of 25 men with history of abuse: 16 reported gender identity confusion, 8 bisexual, 2 primarily homosexual, 1 professed heterosexual but was not. 4. Remafedi, G. (1994) Predictors of unprotected intercourse among gay and bisexual youth: Knowledge, belief, and behavior. Pediatrics, 94: 163-165. • 239 men aged 13 to 21 self-identified as homosexual or bisexual • 42% had been sexually abused or assaulted • (30% had attempted suicide; 23% used cocaine; 66% used marijuana regularly; 29% had been arrested; 11% had accepted money for sex)

  37. תקיפה מינית בילדות כגורם להומוסקסואליות בבגרות? 5. Tomeo, M., Templer, D., Anderson, S., & Kotler, D. (2001) Comparative data on childhood and adolescence molestation in homosexual and heterosexual persons. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 30(3): 535-541. • 942 adults. • Homosexuals: 46% men (mean age 11), 22% women (mean age 13) reported child molestation by person of same gender • Heterosexuals: 7% men, 1% women (Ego syntonic: 97% of the gay men participated in gay pride celebration)

  38. תקיפה מינית בילדות כגורם להומוסקסואליות בבגרות? 6. Finkelhor, D (1984) Child Sexual Abuse. New York: The Free Press,. "Boys victimized by older men were over four times more likely to be engaged in homosexual activity than were nonvictims“ 7. Sagarin E. (1976) Prison homosexuality and its effect on post-prison sexual behavior. Psychiatry, 39:245-257. • Of 9 convicts: 5 rapists returned to heterosexuality. 4 victims became homosexual 8. רני לוי: השפעת האונס על הנפגע

  39. התיאוריה ההורמונאלית Dorner G, Schenk B, et al. (1983) Stressful events in prenatal life of bi- and homosexual men. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology, 81: 83-87. Mothers of male homosexuals, bisexuals and heterosexuals were to recall stressful episodes they may have experienced during pregnancy (e.g. deaths of close relatives, divorces, separations, traumatic, financial or sexual experiences, feelings of severe anxiety). Nearly two-thirds of the mothers of the male homosexuals, compared to one-third of the mothers of the bisexuals and less than 10% of the mothers of the heterosexuals were able to recall such episodes.

  40. שאלת-תם: האם אובדן האב, אונס האם וכיוצא-באלה מרעין-בישין שפקדו אותה בזמן ההיריון חדלים להשפיע על התפתחותו הנפשית של הרך הנולד מרגע הגיחו לאוויר העולם?

  41. אוריינטציה מינית וסדר הלידה 1. Cantor, JM, Blanchard, R, Paterson, AD, Bogaert, AF (2002): How many gay men owe their sexual orientation to fraternal birth order? Archives of Sexual Behavior 31: 63-71. Likelihood increases by 33% with every male elder brother

  42. אוריינטציה מינית וסדר הלידה 2. Bogaert,Anthony F(2000) Birth order and sexual orientation in a national probability sample. Journal of Sex Research 37(3): 361-68. “[T]he birth order effect seems to be one of the more robust findings in modern sexology.” “One of the more impressive elements of the birth order effect is its generalizability. Not only has the effect been demonstrated in samples of men from different eras (see Blanchard & Bogaert, 1996a, 1996b), from different countries (see Blanchard & Bogaert, 1996b; Blanchard, Zucker, Cohen-Kettenis, Gooren, & Bailey, 1996), and with different ethnicities (Bogaert, 1998), but it has also been found to occur in clinical (e.g., Bogaert et al., 1997) and nonclinical (e.g., Blanchard & Bogaert, 1996b) samples. Recently, we have demonstrated that the birth order difference between homosexual and heterosexual men is primarily the result of homosexual men being born later among their brothers, relative to heterosexual men (Blanchard & Bogaert, 1996a, 1996b, 1997; Bogaert et al., 1997).”

  43. עצם ההיוולדות כתאום לא-זהה Bearman, PS; Bruckner, H (2002): Opposite-sex twins and adolescent same-sex attraction. American Journal of Sociology, 107: 1179-1205. Adolescent sibling pairs drawn from a nationally representative sample (N=5,552) . Male adolescents who have a female twin are more likely to report a same-sex attraction than any other group in these data (16.8 %)

  44. למארק חי וקיים 1. Blanchard, R., & Klassen, P. (1997) H-Y antigen and homosexuality in men. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 185: 373—378. 2. Pollard, I. (1996) Preconceptual programming and sexual orientation: a hypothesis. Journal of theoretical biology, 179: 269—273. ושוב, האם ההשפעה של אחים זכרים על התפתחותו המינית של האח הצעיר מסתיימת ברחם האם? (על פסיכולוגיה שמעתם?)

  45. הסביבה המשפחתית כגורםבהתפתחות ההומוסקסואליות Frisch, M. and Hviid, A. (2006) Childhood family correlates of heterosexual and homosexual marriages: A national cohort study of two million Danes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35: 533–547. Men who marry homosexually are more likely to have been raised in a family with unstable parental relationships -- particularly, absent or unknown fathers and divorced parents. Men who experienced parental death during childhood or adolescence "had significantly lower heterosexual marriage rates than peers whose parents were both alive on their 18th birthday. The younger the age of the father's death, the lower was the likelihood of heterosexual marriage." "The shorter the duration of parental marriage, the higher was the likelihood of homosexual marriage...homosexual marriage rates were 36% and 26% higher among men and women, respectively, who experienced parental divorce after less than six years of marriage, than among peers whose parents remained married for all 18 years of childhood and adolescence." "Men whose parents divorced before their 6th birthday were 39% more likely to marry homosexually than peers from intact parental marriages." "Men whose cohabitation with both parents ended before age 18 years had significantly (55% -76%) higher rates of homosexual marriage than men who cohabited with both parents until 18 years."

  46. הסביבה המשפחתית כגורםבהתפתחות ההומוסקסואליות (המשך) Lung, F.W., & Shu, B. C. (2007). Father-son attachment and sexual partner orientation in Taiwan. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 48: 20-26. “In conclusion, the construct of sexual partner orientation set in early childhood has been demonstrated in this study. Paternal attachment and introverted and neurotic characteristics present major influencing factors in the development of homosexuals. In particular, the father-son relationship has a unique role in the process of becoming a male homosexual” (p. 25).

  47. הילד הפרה-הומוסקסואלי Hamer, D.H., & and Copeland, P. (1994) The Science of Desire. New York: Simon and Schuster. “Most sissies will grow up to be homosexuals, and most gay men were sissies as children. . . . Despite the provocative and politically incorrect nature of that statement, it fits the evidence. In fact, it may be the most consistent, well-documented, and significant finding in the entire field of sexual-orientation research and perhaps in all of human psychology” (p. 166).

  48. הילד הפרה-הומוסקסואלי "אבא לא אהב אותי" סיבה? תוצאה?

  49. בנוגע לתיראפיה, שתי שאלות: א. "סטרייט הלך לטיפול, גילה שהוא בעצם הומו, למד לממש את עצמו, ומאז הם חיים באושר" – ייתכן? מותר? ב. נער אומר: "שדיים מגעילים אותי."אישה מודה: "אני לא יכולה לסבול ריח של גבר."מותר לברר למה, או להשאיר חבוי?האם הבירור יכול להביא לשינוי?ואם כן, האם זה רע?

  50. מוקש הטרמינולוגיה "טיפול פסיכודינמי"– נייטרלי, משאיר מקום לבירור רצונו האותנטי של המטופל לאורך זמן, בלי שיפוטיות הומופובית/ הומופילית/ ליברלית/ פוסטמודרניסטית, ואז השינוי יכול לבוא מבפנים. "טיפולי המרה" – מונח דמגוגי, יוצר בכוונה קונוטציות מאיימות "ראוריינטציה מינית" – בעייתי, מניח מטרה לטיפול