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AFRICA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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AFRICA. Geography. Mediterranean Sea. Strait of Gibraltar. Red Sea. Gulf of Aden. Gulf of Guinea. Indian Ocean. Atlantic Ocean. Mozambique Channel. Africa has a regular coastline Smooth Few natural ports and harbors Limits trade Coastline leads directly to desert or jungle

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Mediterranean Sea

Strait of Gibraltar

Red Sea

Gulf of Aden

Gulf of Guinea

Indian Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Mozambique Channel

Africa has a regular coastline


Few natural ports and harbors

Limits trade

Coastline leads directly to desert or jungle

Limited exploration by the Europeans

Helps to isolate Africa

Bodies of Water
  • Lake Victoria
  • Lake Tanganyika
  • Lake Malawi
great rift valley
Great Rift Valley
  • 4,000 mile canyon in East Africa
  • Natural barrier
  • Site of many archeological discoveries, including “Lucy” or Homo Habilis, by Mary & Louis Leakey.
great rift valley cont d
Great Rift Valley cont’d

Great Rift Valley

It is believed that Ancient man originated here

Skeleton of “Lucy”- Remains of Ancient Female found in GRV

  • Tall, mostly treeless grasslands that has both a dry and a wet season.
  • Covers approximately 45% of Africa
  • The majority of people & wildlife live in the savanna region.
  • Cover about 40% of Africa
  • Sahara
  • Kalahari
  • Namib
  • Nubian
  • Atlas Mts.
  • Drakensburg Mts.
  • Mt. Kilamanjaro
  • Highest mountains are located in eastern Africa.
climate zones
Climate Zones
  • Africa has very diverse climate regions.
  • Desert
  • Steppe
  • Savanna
  • Rainforest
  • Mediterranean
sahara desert
Sahara Desert

Located in Northern Africa

Larger than the United States

Occupies 1/3 of Africa

Not a sandy desert: most of the desert is rock and gravel

Causes geographic isolation

Serves as a natural barrier separating the people of the Sahara and Southern Africa

  • the process of fertile land becoming desert.
  • Causes:
    • Overuse/over farming, overgrazing and over cutting of trees for firewood.
    • Trees and grasses have root systems that hold topsoil in place, without them erosion blows or washes it away, and the land becomes desert.
desertification con t
Desertification con’t
  • Solutions:
    • Crop rotation: moving one type of crop to a different field each year.
      • Prevents the soil nutrients from being depleted year after year.
    • Planting tree belts also stops wind erosion
  • Nile River
  • Niger R.
  • White Nile
  • Benue R.
  • Blue Nile
  • Congo R.
  • Zambezi R.
  • Victoria Falls
nile river
Nile River
  • The longest river in the world at 4,180 miles long.
  • It flowsNORTH from the mountainous region of Lake Victoria to the coastal plains of the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Cataracts- places where the river becomes shallow, rocks, rapids and waterfalls prevent navigation
  • Trade/transportation hindered- slowed, prevented by cataracts
gift of the nile
“Gift of the Nile”
  • It is an annual, predictable flood that provides nutrient rich soil for crops to grow surrounded by desert.
  • Rich soil= silt
  • The Nile River valley was home to one of the world’s first civilizations: Egyptian civilization
    • The Egyptians created their calendar based off the annual overflow of the nile