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AFRICA. Geography. Mediterranean Sea. Strait of Gibraltar. Red Sea. Gulf of Aden. Gulf of Guinea. Indian Ocean. Atlantic Ocean. Mozambique Channel. Africa has a regular coastline Smooth Few natural ports and harbors Limits trade Coastline leads directly to desert or jungle

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africa

AFRICA

Geography

slide3
Mediterranean Sea

Strait of Gibraltar

Red Sea

Gulf of Aden

Gulf of Guinea

Indian Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Mozambique Channel

coastline
Africa has a regular coastline

Smooth

Few natural ports and harbors

Limits trade

Coastline leads directly to desert or jungle

Limited exploration by the Europeans

Helps to isolate Africa

Coastline
slide5
Bodies of Water
  • Lake Victoria
  • Lake Tanganyika
  • Lake Malawi
great rift valley
Great Rift Valley
  • 4,000 mile canyon in East Africa
  • Natural barrier
  • Site of many archeological discoveries, including “Lucy” or Homo Habilis, by Mary & Louis Leakey.
great rift valley cont d
Great Rift Valley cont’d

Great Rift Valley

It is believed that Ancient man originated here

Skeleton of “Lucy”- Remains of Ancient Female found in GRV

savannas
Savannas
  • Tall, mostly treeless grasslands that has both a dry and a wet season.
  • Covers approximately 45% of Africa
  • The majority of people & wildlife live in the savanna region.
deserts
Deserts
  • Cover about 40% of Africa
  • Sahara
  • Kalahari
  • Namib
  • Nubian
mountains
Mountains
  • Atlas Mts.
  • Drakensburg Mts.
  • Mt. Kilamanjaro
  • Highest mountains are located in eastern Africa.
climate zones
Climate Zones
  • Africa has very diverse climate regions.
  • Desert
  • Steppe
  • Savanna
  • Rainforest
  • Mediterranean
sahara desert
Sahara Desert

Located in Northern Africa

Larger than the United States

Occupies 1/3 of Africa

Not a sandy desert: most of the desert is rock and gravel

Causes geographic isolation

Serves as a natural barrier separating the people of the Sahara and Southern Africa

desertification
Desertification
  • the process of fertile land becoming desert.
  • Causes:
    • Overuse/over farming, overgrazing and over cutting of trees for firewood.
    • Trees and grasses have root systems that hold topsoil in place, without them erosion blows or washes it away, and the land becomes desert.
desertification con t
Desertification con’t
  • Solutions:
    • Crop rotation: moving one type of crop to a different field each year.
      • Prevents the soil nutrients from being depleted year after year.
    • Planting tree belts also stops wind erosion
rivers
Rivers
  • Nile River
  • Niger R.
  • White Nile
  • Benue R.
  • Blue Nile
  • Congo R.
  • Zambezi R.
  • Victoria Falls
nile river
Nile River
  • The longest river in the world at 4,180 miles long.
  • It flowsNORTH from the mountainous region of Lake Victoria to the coastal plains of the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Cataracts- places where the river becomes shallow, rocks, rapids and waterfalls prevent navigation
  • Trade/transportation hindered- slowed, prevented by cataracts
gift of the nile
“Gift of the Nile”
  • It is an annual, predictable flood that provides nutrient rich soil for crops to grow surrounded by desert.
  • Rich soil= silt
  • The Nile River valley was home to one of the world’s first civilizations: Egyptian civilization
    • The Egyptians created their calendar based off the annual overflow of the nile
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