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Part 1. History of Technology. Objectives. 1. Distinguish important technological developments over time. 2. Assess the impact of technology over society. 3. Formulate opinions on the influence of technology on human development.

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  1. Part 1 History of Technology

  2. Objectives • 1. Distinguish important technological developments over time. • 2. Assess the impact of technology over society. • 3. Formulate opinions on the influence of technology on human development. • 4. Assess the state of technology in developed and developing societies. • 5. Identify the conditions necessary for technological growth.

  3. The Great Leap Forward • Around 4 million years ago our ancestors were habitually walking upright, which freed their forelimbs to do other things, among which tool making would be the most important. • As recently as 35,000 years ago western Europe was occupied by Neanderthals (primitive beings). • We still share 98 percent of our genes with chimpanzees and gorillas.

  4. The Great Leap Forward • Neanderthal tools from 100,000 and 40,000 years ago look essentially the same. • Neanderthal caves have small areas of ash and charcoal indicating a simple fire place. • Neanderthals buried their dead. • They regularly took care of the sick and aged (rarely lived beyond 45).

  5. The Great Leap Forward • Australia was first reached by humans around 50,000 years ago, which implies the existence of watercraft capable of crossing the 60 miles from Indonesia. • Around 35,000 years ago the Neanderthals started using thin blades of stone, bone, and antler tools. • Barbed harpoons, darts, spears and bows and arrows start appearing allowing the Neanderthals to kill buffalo and pigs.

  6. The Great Leap Forward • Occupation of humans across northern Russia and Siberia depended on many advances: • tailored clothing as evidenced by eyed needles, • cave paintings of parkas, • grave ornaments marking outlines of shirts and trousers, • warm furs of wolf and fox, • houses with fireplaces and stone lamps to hold animal fat and light the long artic nights. • The occupation of Siberia in turn led to the occupation of North America and South America approximately 11,000 years ago.

  7. The Great Leap Forward • Unlike Neanderthals, the Cro-Magnons are known for their art: rock paintings, necklaces and pendants, musical instruments from flutes to rattles. • Some Cro-Magnons lived to be 60. • It is assumed the Cro-Magnons (smarter) prevailed over the Neanderthals (more muscular) because of weaponry (like humans are threatening to exterminate gorillas in central Africa).

  8. The Great Leap Forward • Anatomically modern people (Cro-Magnons) replaced the Neanderthals between 90,000 and 60,000 years ago. • We were fully modern in anatomy and behavior and language by 35,000 years ago.

  9. Bronze and Iron Can Create a Civilization • By 4500 B.C. the residents of what today is known as Thailand were using Bronze in their daily routine – Bronze Age. • By approximately 500 B.C. the Greeks built furnaces that could generate enough heat to melt iron and shape it into tools for peace and war. • The Greeks discovered by adding small amounts of carbon to iron as it was hammered over a charcoal fire they could get steel. • Steel could be used for swords, body armor, as well as pots and dishes.

  10. The History of Energy • James Watt and Thomas Newcomen, contributed to the rise of steam power. • Watt raised the efficiency of the steam engine from 5 to 25% in 1769 (dKospedia.com). • Coal drove the steam economy – steam engines, steamboats, and steam locomotives (ucusa.org). • The soot from coal use turned blue skies grey and make house cleaning a never ending task.

  11. The History of Energy • Petroleum became useful in lighting houses with the dimming of the whale oil industry (ucsusa.org). • In 1901 a large petroleum deposit was found in Texas (dKosopedia.com). • At the same time the internal combustion engine – automobile - was being introduced and oil producers were discovering ways of refining petroleum into gasoline. • A gallon of gasoline cost less than a quarter (ucsusa.org). • The combination of cars and cheap gas put the world on wheels.

  12. The History of Energy • By the end of World War II, the planet was dotted with coal fired power plants and hydro electric dams. • Utility lines brought light to cities and rural areas. • Hundreds of nuclear plants were also built to replace the coal fired plants – over 200 in the United States.

  13. The History of Energy • The Arab oil embargo of the 1970’s, the disasters of Three Mile Island in the United States in 1977 and Chernobyl in the Soviet Union in 1986, caused nations to look for alternative sources of energy. • As the 20th century came to a close, nations were looking for ways to reduce their dependence on oil. • Alternatives considered are ethanol, solar and wind power.

  14. The History of Ecology • Ecology is the scientific study of living organisms and how they are affected by their environment (en.wikipedia.org). • Ecology’s importance grew as the impact of human activity on the plant and animal world became more pronounced. • The importance of the field was bolstered with Charles Darwin’s, “The Origin of Species” published in 1859. • The Kyoto Protocol established the importance of looking at ecology from a global perspective.

  15. The History of Climatology • Climatology is the science that studies climates and investigates their phenomena and causes. • The study of climatology involves weather information, seasonal changes, and how climate changes over time. • Koppen (1900) established the Koppen Climate System to group climates into similar types, and published a map of climate zones in which seasonal temperature ranges were plotted. • Koppen also studied the relationship between plants and the climate in which they grew.

  16. Summary • This section has established the connection of humanity with technology. • The phone, car, and the computer offers instant communication and mobility. • We often live longer as a result of technology.

  17. Home Work • 1. What 3 characteristics did Neanderthals exhibit? • 2. When was Australia inhabited and what does that imply? • 3. What are some of the advances that allowed early humans live in northern Russia and Siberia. • 4. What made the Cro-Magnons prevail over the Neanderthals? • 5. Where and when was bronze discovered? • 6. Where and when was iron discovered? • 7. What was used to power the steam engines? • 8. What put the world on wheels. • 9. What is ecology? • 10. What is climatology?

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