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Ch. 14 The Beginnings of Our Global Age: Europe, Africa, and Asia 1415-1796. The Motivations to Explore. Control trade of an area for items Spices, medicines, perfumes Curiosity beginning in the Renaissance Marco Polo, invention of printing press

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the motivations to explore
The Motivations to Explore
  • Control trade of an area for items
    • Spices, medicines, perfumes
  • Curiosity beginning in the Renaissance
    • Marco Polo, invention of printing press
  • Later, religion or “mask” of religion becomes factor
prince henry the navigator 1415
Prince Henry the Navigator 1415
  • Begins school of navigators and cartographers
  • Chief goal is to explore and eventually sail around Africa
  • Motivation to
    • Spread Christianity to Africa
    • Convert sources of Muslim traders riches for Portugal
  • 1488, Bartholomeu Dias rounds tip of Africa around Cape of Good Hope
typical explorer identity
Typical Explorer Identity
  • Searching for wealth, fame, and/or fortune
  • Suffers hardships on long journeys to newly discovered territory
  • Finds “new lands”
  • Negotiates “treaties” with native groups
  • Begins profitable trade for Europeans
  • Start of European Imperialism around the world
key improvements to sailing
Key Improvements to Sailing
  • Better compass
  • Improved mapmaking
  • Faster ships
  • Astrolabes- applied to shipping

Columbus Reaches the Americas

  • As the Portuguese sailed East toward Asia, the Spanish wanted to share in the trade and wealth from Asia
  • In 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella agreed to finance, or pay for a voyage by Christopher Columbus
  • On August 1492, Columbus set sail with three vessels and a crew of 90 sailors
  • The Santa Maria, Nina and the Pinta were his three sailing ships.

October 11th, the sailors discovered land

  • This land was not the Indies but the Bahamas.
  • Columbus established the first Spanish colony in the Americas Hispaniola
  • A colony - a territory under the immediate political control of a distant country
  • Native Americans on the island were called “Indos”
  • Columbus did not realize he was in the West Indies, not the East

Columbus met the Tainos

  • Columbus promised Queen Isabella that in another trip he could convert the Indians to Christianity and enslave them
  • He claimed the land and enslaved the Taino

The Spanish

Cross the Pacific

  • In 1511 the Spanish settled in the Caribbean Islands
  • Columbus had conquered Puerto Rico, Jamaica and Cuba

In 1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa reached the Pacific Ocean

  • He claimed the Pacific Ocean for Spain

In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan sailed across the Pacific Ocean around the tip of South America

  • Europeans became aware of the true size of the world.

In 1522, one ship and 18 sailorscircumnavigated, or sail completely around the world

  • Only one ship from Magellan’s fleet returned home to Spain in 1522
  • First to circumnavigate the globe.
routes to find the riches of asia
Routes to find the riches of Asia
  • East around Africa
  • West through Central America
  • Northwest Passage through North America
  • South through Straits of Magellan (South America)
  • 1497 Vasco da Gama follows Dias and rounds tip of Africa to India
  • Portuguese create ports on coast of India
dividing the globe
Dividing the globe
  • 1493 Ferdinand and Isabella in Spain push Pope to set a Line of Demarcation
  • Line splits non-European world between Portugal/Spain
  • Treaty of Tordesillas- signed in 1494 between Spain/Portugal splitting world between two empires
portuguese influence spreads in africa
Portuguese Influence Spreads in Africa
  • Set up posts around continent
  • Collect water, food, and supplies
  • Began attacking existing cities: Mombassa and Malindi
  • Main goal was to get to India
portuguese trading posts
Portuguese Trading Posts
  • Traded muskets, tools, and cloth for gold, ivory, hides, and slaves
  • Left forts to supply and defend their ships, not to start colonies
  • Set up to expel Arabs in East African trade network (avoiding middleman)
  • Portuguese never ventured very far from the coast
new era begins african slave trade 1500 s 1600 s
New Era Begins:African Slave Trade 1500’s-1600’s
  • Slaves had been in every major society in world history
  • Plantations: large estates run by an owner or an owner’s overseer
  • Servants could also be purchased for wealthy European families
  • African tribes did the dirty work
  • Brought captives to trade as slaves to Europeans
  • In return, they receive textiles, metal work, rum, tobacco, weapons, and gunpowder
affonso i
Affonso I
  • Affonso I, ruler of the Kongo objected to the slave trade
  • 1505 after becoming King calls in Portuguese to help Kongo become Christian
  • Wanted to end the slave trade (pg. 456)

King Affonso I 1456-1545

who controls the slave trade new african states arise
  • Asante Kingdom Late 1600’s
  • Present day Ghana
  • United by Osei Tutu
  • Resisted Denkyera Kingdom by proclaiming “a right to rule from heaven”
  • Government officials chosen by birth managing gold mining and the slave trade

Monopoly: exclusive control of a business or industry

  • Asante monopolize slave trade with Europeans
  • Play Europeans against one another
  • Oyo Empire
  • Present-day Nigeria
  • Late 1600’s, leaders use slave trade wealth to build an army
decline of portuguese arrival of dutch british and french
Decline of Portuguese- Arrival of Dutch, British, and French
  • 1600’s Portuguese power declines with arrival of Dutch, British, and French in the region
  • 1652 Dutch found Cape Town
  • Settled by the Boers
  • Mid 1600’s, British and French meet present day Senegal
  • 1788 British establish African Association to sponsor explorers to Africa
portugal builds an eastern empire
Portugal Builds an Eastern Empire
  • After Vasco da Gama’s voyage, Afonso de Albuquerque led the Portuguese into the Indian Ocean
  • Muslim ruled Mughal Empire controlled the region
  • Princes in Southern India turn to side of the Portuguese
more outposts
More Outposts
  • 1510 Goa becomes a major Portuguese military and commercial base
  • Muslims become target of Portuguese
  • Fall of Malacca in 1511 sees Muslim massacre
  • Extension of outposts from East Africa to India allows spice trade to be controlled by Portuguese
  • Portuguese focus on turning Muslims to Christianity
rise of the dutch
Rise of the Dutch
  • Cape Town (South Africa) was first Dutch colony
  • By 1599, Dutch use Cape Town and other settlements/colonies/outposts to gain influence

Dutch East India Company Routes

dutch east india company
Dutch East India Company
  • 1602 formed by wealthy merchants and controlled by government
  • Could build armies, wage war, negotiate treaties and govern overseas territory
  • 1641 take Malacca from Portuguese
  • Set up trade with China and monopolize Spice Islands
close ties with locals
Close Ties with Locals
  • Dutch close to local rulers
  • Intermarriage takes place
  • Dutch hold Indonesian power until 1900’s
  • French and British come to control Souteast Asia in 1700’s

Emergence of Spanish

  • 1521 Magellan (before he dies) claims Philippines for Spain
  • Division of Philippines allows easy conversion by missionaries to Christianity
  • Philippines used as base to extend Spanish trade
  • Silver from South America to China
mughal empire india begins decline
Mughal Empire (India) Begins Decline
  • Through 1600’s, Mughal controlled powerful Indian Empire
  • Exported spices, large quantities of silk and cotton cloth, and other luxury goods
  • Religious differences (Muslims vs. Hindus) caused decline of power
  • European influence seeps in region
  • Corruption destroys empire
  • European powers create East Indian companies to control trade and government in region
  • Sepoys- Indian soldiers
  • Companies use sepoy armies to dominate region
indian armies
Indian Armies

British army blowing Sepoy mutineers from guns in 1857

matteo ricci 1583 1610
Matteo Ricci 1583-1610

In spirit of Marco Polo, Matteo Ricci comes to China in 1583

Adopts Chinese dress and customs over 30 years

Translates European books into Chinese

Extends Europes knowledge of China

european contact with ming china
European Contact with Ming China

1514 Portuguese ships reach China from Malacca

Europeans were considered barbarians

Silks and porcelains were preferred products

Chinese wanted gold/silver in return

Macao (present day Guangshou) becomes post for Portuguese and later Dutch, English, etc. trading

Trading supervised by imperial officials

Jesuit arrival led by Ricci expands contact between two societies

the manchu conquest
The Manchu Conquest

Early 1600’s, Ming Dynasty was in decay

Manchus push through the Great Wall to seize Bejing in 1644

Qing (ching) Dynasty emerges

Qing ruled through local governments of Chinese backed by military might

brilliant qing rulers
Brilliant Qing Rulers

Kangxi, Qing Emperor

Kangxi (kahngshee)1622-1722:

Extends Chinese power into Central Asia

Qianlong (chyahnlung) 1736-1796:

Grandson of Kangxi; expands nation to largest area in nation’s history

Qianlong, Qing Emperor

rule of the qing
Rule of the Qing

Economy grows with introduction of new products (potatoes, corn)

Population rises from 140-300million (1740-1800)

1793 Lord Macartney (Great Britain) arrives with western products for trade

Macartney insults Chinese and they choose not to negotiate trade

korea and japan
Korea and Japan

1592 and 1597 Japan invades Korea

Koreans had before maintained contacts all the way to the Mediterranean

Japanese burn villages, famine and disease result seeing population drop

1636 Qing invade

Koreans begin isolation period

japanese welcome outsiders
Japanese Welcome Outsiders

Tokugawa shoguns began to centralize power and impose order

Europeans arrive in 1543 (Portuguese)

Japanese welcome Christianity and printing press

With as many as 300,000 Japanese Christians and Spain seizing the Philipines, shoguns become hostile


By 1638, Shoguns had persecuted Christians, barred Europeans, and banned foreign travel

  • This begins 200 years of foreign isolation