World War I Begins1914-1918 SWBAT: Identify the causes of WWI and explain why the U.S. chose neutrality. Homework: Vocabulary Sheet Do Now: Write down everything you know about WWI. Consider: Countries involved Reason for fighting US involvement Important people and places
Causes of World War I • Nationalism • Imperialism • Militarism • Alliance System • What were some of the acronyms you created?
An Assassination Sparks a War • June 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne is in Sarajevo. • While driving, a Serbian nationalist shot the Archduke and his wife, Sophie. • On July 28, Austria-Hungary declared what was expected to be a short war against Serbia.
But it gets worse How does this political cartoon illustrate the alliance system?
The Alliance System takes its toll • The alliance system pulled one nation after another into the war. • Germany, Austria-Hungary’s ally, declares war on Russia, Serbia’s ally. • Germany then declares war on Russia’s ally, France. • After Germany invaded Belgium, Great Britain declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary. • By September, 1914, the world is at war.
So, who ends up on which side??? • Central Powers • German Empire • Austria-Hungary • Ottoman Empire • Bulgaria • Allied Powers • France • Great Britain • Russia • Italy • Serbia • Romania • Japan • Belgium • Greece • Portugal But, what country is missing from the list?
United States Position • http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=3&psid=3889 • Students will read to see the United States’ official position.
America Enters the War SWBAT: Identify reasons the U.S. finally enters WWI Homework: Vocabulary Do Now: Yesterday we discussed reasons why we should stay out of the war. But what are some reasons Americans might support war in Europe?
Lets make a list… Pros Cons
Avoiding the war gets more difficult • British begin a blockade of German ships • Nothing gets into Germany, nothing gets out. • Germany responds with counter blockade. • Any British or Allied ship fund in waters around Britain would be sunk. • U-boats sink the British liner Lusitania off the coast of Ireland. • Dead: 1,198 • American loss: 128
Looking at this picture, why might the Lusitania disaster have changed American public opinion against Germany?
Problems Worsen • 1916 Germany begins unrestricted submarine warfare. • U-boats would now sink any ship- hostile or neutral- on sight. • Still, Wilson refused to declare war. • Wanted to wait for “actual overt acts” before asking Congress for declaration of war.
An “Overt” action • Zimmermann Note: a telegraph from the German foreign minster to the German ambassador in Mexico that was intercepted by British agents. • Proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico and promised that if war with the US broke out, Germany would help Mexico take back “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona”.
America joins the war • On April 2, 1917 America declared war on Germany and the rest of the central powers.
America and the War SWBAT: Homework: Study for vocab quiz Do Now:
America mobilizes • The U.S. was NOT prepared for war. • To meet the needs for more soldiers, Congress passed the Selective Service Act. • Required men to register w/the gov’t to be selected randomly for service. • In all this totaled 24 million men. • By the end of the war, 3 million men were called up for service. • 2 million were in Europe by the war’s end ¾ of which saw combat.
Who were these soldiers? • 1 in 5 were foreign born. • 400,000 were African Americans • ½ served in segregated combat units. • ½ served in non-combat roles (cooked, did laundry, etc.) • None were allowed in the navy or marines. • 13,000 women accepted non-combat positions • Served as nurses, secretaries, and phone operators.
Realities of War • Trench warfare occurred when a revolution in firepower was not matched by similar advances in mobility. • Both sides quickly recognized that assaults against the enemy trenches were suicide if begun in broad daylight, so attacks tended to take place just before dawn or right at dawn. • Conditions: unsanitary.
No man’s land: the territory between the opposing front trenches. Whenever possible, both sides filled this land with barbed wire to slow down any rapid advances by the enemy. The machine gun and the new long-range rifles made movement in this area almost impossible.
Exit Slip • Use five words to describe trench warfare during WWI
America Turns the Tide SWBAT: Why America’s involvement in World War I turned the tides of war towards Allied victory. Homework: Do Now: Study for vocab quiz
Fighting in Europe • By the time the U.S. entered the war, Allied troops had been fighting for 2.5 years. • Many felt exhausted and demoralized. • American soldier’s freshness and optimism helped raise morale
Convoy System • German U-boats were a serious threat to shipping soldiers and war materials over the Atlantic. • A navy admiral devised the convoy system: • When a heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships across the Atlantic. • Cut losses in half over a year.
Collapse of Germany • After a series of successful battles, the Allies start winning the war. • On November 3, 1918 Austria-Hungary surrendered to the Allies. • German soldiers, tired of fighting began mutinying calling for an end to the war. • At 11:00am on November 11, 1918, Germany surrendered and signed an armistice.
The Final Toll • Was the bloodiest war in history up to that time. • Total deaths: 22 million of that half were civilians. • Wounded: 20 million • US losses • Deaths: 48,000 in battle, 62,000 of disease • Wounded: 200,000 • Cost: $338 billion
Exit Slip • How do you think America’s position as a world power will change after the end of World War I? Explain.