Sumerians and Mesopotamia AMH Mr. Moran UHS
Nomadic Tribes who settled in the Fertile Crescent Peoples from between the rivers (Greek) 22 city-states and many other satellite cities Led by religious leaders Led sacrifices Organized tributes and collections Set celebrations and rules Religious leader create the “elite” or “aristocracy” element in the civilization Strong families controlled leading to the creation of the “En” The “En” become the religious leaders who control the city-states Achievements include Creation of walls Ziggurats Irrigation systems Canals Trade routes Who were the Sumerians
Popular and strong “En” were also responsible for religious and secular issues. War occurs because of the competition for resources and control of trade routs “En” became more political and lost the religious elements. Lugal –”big man” Once we have writing, Lugal authority is well established and war exists Lugal responsibilities increase Protection Maintaining army Leader Scribes and workforce Maintain trade routes and irrigation systems Emergence of Kings and soldiers
Large population Specialization Organization (government) Weapons and military systems Reason Competition for resources What is needed to have war?
Evidence was found in the burial mounds of the Kings of Ur Daggers Knives Spears Maces Socket ax Chariots Sickle-sword Tablets and written accounts tell us of war triumphs and defeats. How do we know war existed in Mesopotamia
Sargon I Akkadian Hamurabi Code of Hamurabi Sumerians (3000-2350 BCE) Akkadians (2350-2230 BCE) Semitic group Third Ur Dynasty (2112-2004 BCE) Summerian Semitic Groups Amorites or Old Babylonian Empire (1900-1600 BCE) Assyrians/ Kassite (1500-1150 BCE) Hittites (1200-900 BCE) Chaldeans (900-530 BCE) Persians (625 BCE- WWI) Empires of Mesopotamia