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Native Texas Cultures. Caddo ~ Wichita Tonkawa ~ Apache ~ Comanche ~ Kiowa Jumano ~ Tigua Coahuiltecan ~ Karankawa. First People in Americas. Scientist believe the first people arrived in North America from Asia Freezing temperatures of the Ice Age created huge glaciers

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native texas cultures

Native Texas Cultures

Caddo ~ Wichita

Tonkawa ~ Apache ~Comanche ~ Kiowa

Jumano ~ Tigua

Coahuiltecan~ Karankawa

first people in americas
First People in Americas
  • Scientist believe the first people arrived in North America from Asia
    • Freezing temperatures of the Ice Age created huge glaciers
    • Ocean temperatures fell
    • Bering Strait became dry forming a “land bridge” called Beringia
    • Asian peoples crossed “land bridge” between Asia and Alaska
    • They were hunter-gatherers
first people in americas1
First People in Americas
  • In 1492, Christopher Columbus thought he reached a part of Asia called the “Indies”
    • Named the people he met “Indians”
    • Today, we call them Native Americans
the early cultures
The Early Cultures
  • How do we study past cultures?
    • Archeologists-scientists who study and learn about past cultures from artifacts they find
  • How were Indian cultures organized?
    • Bands – consist of two or more extended families that lived together under one leader.
      • What is an extended family?
    • Tribes – multiple bands who follow the same leader and share the same territory and culture.
the caddo
THE CADDO
  • Region: Coastal Plains
    • Piney Woods Area
  • Housing: Large, Cone-Shaped Houses in Villages
    • Could hold 8-10 families
    • Decorated with colorful rugs, baskets, and pottery
  • Clothing: Deerskin (tanned to a deep black) and Buffalo Hide (in winter)
  • Tools/Weapons: Bow and Arrow
the caddo1
THE CADDO
  • Unique Characteristics:
    • Organized into confederacies
    • Clay Pottery
    • Farming/Hunting/Gathering
    • Contributed to Texas agriculture
    • “Tay-yas” – Friends
    • Most Advanced Culture
the wichita
THE WICHITA
  • Region: North Central Plains
  • Housing: Tipis (nomads), Grass Huts
  • Clothing: Deerskin and Buffalo Hide
  • Tools/Weapons: Horses for hunting from Kiowas
  • Unique Characteristics:
    • Shorter and Darker
    • “Raccoon Eyes” Tattoos
    • Farmers
plains tribes
Plains Tribes

Kiowa

Comanche

Lipan-

Apache

Tonkawa

the tonkawa
THE TONKAWA

Region: Coastal Plains

Housing: Tipis (nomads)

Clothing: Buffalo Hide

Tools/Weapons: Used buffalo to make tools and weapons; Bow and Arrow

Unique Characteristics: Became hunters and gatherers after being pushed East from Comanches and Lipan-Apaches

Friendly tribe

the lipan apache
THE LIPAN-APACHE
  • Region: Great Plains/Coastal Plains
  • Housing: Tipis (nomads)
  • Clothing: Deerskin and Buffalo Hide
  • Tools/Weapons: Used buffalo to make tools and weapons; Bow and Arrow
  • Unique Characteristics:
    • Among the first to ride horses – up to 100 miles per day
    • Some Farming
the comanche
THE COMANCHE
  • Region: Great Plains
  • Housing: Tipis (nomads)
  • Clothing: Buffalo Hide
  • Tools/Weapons: Used buffalo to make tools and weapons; Bow and Arrow
  • Unique Characteristics: ENTIRE way of life depended on the buffalo
    • Pemmican
    • Known as “warriors of the plains”
the kiowas
THE KIOWAS
  • Geographic Location: Great Plains
  • Types of Housing: Tipis (nomads)
  • Types of Clothing: Buffalo Hide
  • Tools/Weapons: Used buffalo to make tools/weapons; Bow and Arrow
  • Unique Characteristics: Sun Dance – “Unity”
    • Became allies with Comanches
pueblo tribes
Pueblo Tribes

Tigua

Jumano

the jumano
THE JUMANO
  • Region: Mountains and Basins
    • Small portion of Great Plains
  • Housing: Adobe Housing (Pueblos)
    • Many families lived in each Pueblo
  • Clothing: Capes and Ponchos
  • Tools/Weapons: Farmers/Farming Tools
the jumano1
THE JUMANO
  • Unique Characteristics:
    • Men did most of the farming
    • Skilled Traders
    • “Striped People” - horizontal
    • FIRST to have horses
the tiguas
THE TIGUAS
  • Region: Mountains and Basins
  • Housing: Adobe Housing (Pueblos)
    • Shelters in the fields
    • Kiva –tribal council meetings
  • Clothing: Capes and Ponchos
  • Tools/Weapons: Farming Tools
the tiguas1
THE TIGUAS
  • Unique Characteristics:
    • Oldest group of Native Americans still living in Texas today – tiny reservation in El Paso
western gulf tribes
Western Gulf Tribes

Coahuiltecan

Karankawa

the coahuiltecans
THE COAHUILTECANS
  • Region: Coastal Plains
  • Housing: Dome-shaped huts covered with reed mats and animal hides
    • Independent bands
    • Very mobile
    • Clothing: Little clothing
      • Breechcloths and sandals
  • Tools/Weapons: Bow and Arrow
    • Pits to catch javelinas (wild pigs)
    • Fires
the coahuiltecans1
THE COAHUILTECANS
  • Unique Characteristics:
    • Hunter-gatherers
    • Ate many things: snakes, snails, insects, spiders,

ROTTEN WOOD, Plants

the karankawas
THE KARANKAWAS
  • Region: Coastal Plains
  • Housing: Lean-To/Hut
    • Held 8 People
    • Easy to move
  • Clothing: Deer Skin or Spanish Moss
  • Tools/Weapons: Long Bow and Arrow
the karankawas1
THE KARANKAWAS
  • Unique Characteristics:
    • Ceremonial cannibalism
    • Fishing, hunting and gathering wild plants
    • Dugout canoes – from tree trunks
    • Tallest Indians – 6 ft
texas indians today
TEXAS INDIANS TODAY
  • 100,000 Native Americans live in Texas today
  • 3 Tribes
    • Tiguain El Paso
    • Alabama-Coushatta in East Texas
    • Kickapoo near Eagle Pass
    • Most bands settled on reservationsin Oklahoma