Chapter 15THE CIVIL WAR Section 1 THE WAR BEGINS
The Civil War #1 The Confederate States of America • 1. Who was involved?
The Civil War #2 The Union (Free States & Territories)
The Civil War #3 The Border States
The Civil War “I hope to have God on my side but I have to have Kentucky” -- Abraham Lincoln • 2. Why were the Border States so important? • Important geographically. Each one was in the ‘middle’ of the North & South • 3. Why were the Border States so unusual? • They all were slave states that stayed with the Union--> MO, KY, MD, DE
The Civil War • Total War - organization of all the resources (people and products) of a country towards the war effort • The resources of enemy civilians are fair targets in total war (ex. Farms, food, etc) • 4. How did they fight?
5. Advantagesand Disadvantages: • South • Population: 9 million (including slaves) • 1.2 million men of fighting age • 3.5 million slaves • North • Population: 22 million • 4 million men of combat age *North has the advantage in population
Advantages and Disadvantages: • South • Economy: 20,000 factories • 9,000 miles of Railroad • $50,000 in bank deposits • North • Economy:100,000 Factories • 22,000 miles of Railroad • $190,000 in bank deposits *North has the advantage in industrial power
Advantages and Disadvantages: • South • Armed Forces: better trained soldiers & better leadership • No real navy • North • Armed Forces:mostly drafted soldiers with overly cautious officers • More soldiers • African Americans - 10% of Union forces • Strong navy *North has the advantage in # of soldiers, but South in the quality of soldiers & generals
Advantages and Disadvantages: • South • Government - Weak government, most power given to states • North • Government - Strong well-established government *North has a stronger govt, better able to direct resources towards the war
Advantages and Disadvantages: • South • Motivation: Preserve way of life • Fought on home soil • North • Motivation: Preserve the union • Later - free the slaves • Fought on enemy territory *Who has the advantage in motivation? You decide.
6. Goals: • South • 1. Defend existing territory • 2. Gain recognition of Confederacy as independent nation • 3. Cotton Diplomacy • North • Anaconda Plan • 1. Blockade the South • 2. Divide - Split the Confederacy by gaining control of the Mississippi River • 3. Conquer - remaining parts *Whose goals would be easier to reach?
7. Leaders: “A House divided against itself cannot stand” -- A. Lincoln • Abraham Lincoln: • Union (North) Leader • Little political experience (served 1 term in the House of Reps) • Strong reputation for honesty, temperance, jokes and storytelling
Leaders: • Jefferson Davis: “All we ask is to be left alone” -- J. Davis • Confederacy (South) Leader • West Point graduate, Colonel in Mexican-American War, Secretary of War, & Senator from Mississippi • Not a popular president, especially with big fans of state’s rights Who has the advantage in leadership?
Northern Commanders George G. Meade Joseph Hooker George McClellan Irwin McDowell A. E. Burnside
Northern Commanders Ulysses S. Grant -- “When in doubt, fight” U.S. Grant • Son of an Ohio tailor & drunken failure until the Civil War • Reputation for boldness, resourcefulness, & persistence
Southern Commander Robert E. Lee “It is a good thing war is so terrible; else we should grow too fond of it” -- R.E. Lee • Brilliant southern gentleman from one of country’s oldest families • Offered command of Union armies • Family plantation occupied early in the war and turned into Arlington National Cemetery Who has the advantage in Commanders?
8. So how did it begin? Where? • Fort Sumter lies in the harbor of Charleston, S.C. • Fort Sumter:
So how did it begin? • Confederate troops began to take over Union forts in the South one by one (wanted control over arsenals, forts, and strategic spots) • The fort is running out of food & Major Robert Anderson telegrams Lincoln for supplies Why? • Fort Sumter: • Lincoln can either defend the fort and risk war or abandon it and look weak in the eyes of the South What?
So how did it begin? So... • Fort Sumter: • Lincoln sends an unarmed ship with food • FGeneral Pierre Beauregard was the commander for the Confederates • FAll the Confederates had to do was blockade the supply ship (starve the Union soldiers into submission) • o South wanted to show that it was time for independence
So how did it begin? FFirst shot was fired at 4:30 a.m. on April 12, 1861 FThe Union soldiers in the fort did not fire back (low on ammunition) FApril 14, 1861 Anderson was forced to surrender The Civil War had begun