The early stages
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The Early Stages. 11-2. 1 st Battle of Bull Run. North wants to quickly attack South CSA has troops ( PGT Beauregard ) at Manassas Junction Lincoln sends troops to attack ( Irving McDowell ). 1 st Battle of Bull Run. Initially, Union troops are winning.

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1 st battle of bull run
1st Battle of Bull Run

  • North wants to quickly attack South

  • CSA has troops (PGT Beauregard) at Manassas Junction

  • Lincoln sends troops to attack (Irving McDowell)

1 st battle of bull run1
1st Battle of Bull Run

  • Initially, Union troops are winning.

  • As some Confederate troops retreat, others under Thomas Jackson hold.

  • Inspires other Conf. soldiers- (“There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Rally around the Virginians.”)

1 st battle of bull run2
1st Battle of Bull Run

  • Conf. counterattack and force Union to retreat

  • As union troops fall back, they become mixed with civilians from D.C. that had come to watch the battle

  • Union retreat is a total panic

  • Both sides realize it will be a long war

The blockade
The Blockade

  • Was increasingly effective as the war progressed

  • Conf used blockade runners to slip through and get supplies

  • Conf also used commerce raiders- functioned out of foreign ports and attacked Union Shipping

The blockade1
The Blockade

  • Most famous commerce raider was CSS Alabama

  • Captain was Raphael Semmes

  • Destroyed many Union ships

  • Finally sunk by USS Kearsarge off the coast of France

New orleans
New Orleans

  • Union wanted to capture the lower Mississippi

  • Sent Union warships (David Farragut) into the mouth of the Mississippi River

  • Steamed up river, captured New Orleans on April 25, 1862

Hampton roads
Hampton Roads

  • March 8&9, 1862

  • Hampton Roads, VA.

  • New confederate ship comes out of port to break the blockade- CSS Virginia (Merrimack)

Hampton roads1
Hampton Roads

  • Virginiais an ironclad- has iron plates on its sides

  • Day one- sinks 2 Union ships

  • Day two, Virginia is met by a Union ironclad- USS Monitor

  • Battle all day to a draw

Hampton roads2
Hampton Roads

  • First battle between iron warships

Ft henry ft donelson
Ft Henry & Ft Donelson

  • Union troops (Ulysses Grant) want to capture the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers

  • Capture Ft. Henry & Ft. Donelson- Gives US control of all KY & western TN


  • Grant heads up the Tennessee to attack Corinth, MS, and important rail line

  • April 6, 1862- Conf. attack Grant’s troops, pushing them back to the river

  • Grant’s commanders advise him to retreat

  • Grants refuses


  • Grant gets reinforcements and attacks the next day

  • Conf have to retreat

  • casualties: Union 13,000; Conf. 11,000

  • Most costly battle in US History, at that time

Peninsular campaign
Peninsular Campaign

  • Happening the same time as the struggle for Tennessee & Mississippi River

  • Lincoln sent Union Army of the Potomac (George McClellan) to capture Richmond

  • Transports army by boat and lands on peninsula south of Richmond

Peninsular campaign1
Peninsular Campaign

  • McClellan was cautious and slow

  • Gave Conf time to get reinforcements and dig in

  • Fight a series of small battles as Union moves toward Richmond

  • Conf general Joseph Johnston injured

  • New general is Robert E. Lee

Peninsular campaign2
Peninsular Campaign

  • Lee attacked McClellan

  • Union forced to retreat

  • Called Seven Days’ Battle

  • Lincoln orders troops to return to Washington

2 nd battle of bull run
2nd Battle of Bull Run

  • As McClellan prepares to return to Washington, Lee attacks Washington

  • Union troops (John Pope) come out to face Conf

  • Conf win again, force Pope to retreat


  • After 2nd Bull Run, Lee invades North

  • Lee wants to :

    • Win European support

    • Turn Northern public opinion against the war

    • Feed off the crops of Northern farmers


  • Lee entered Maryland and waited on McClelland near Sharpsburg, MD (near Antietam Creek) (McClelland knew his plan)

  • Union attacked on Sept 17, 1862


  • Bloodiest single day in US history

  • 26,000 casualties (killed, wounded, missing)

  • Lee withdrew to VA


  • Crucial victory for Union

  • GB wanted to recognize CSA and give them military aid

  • After Antietam, GB decides to wait and see

Emancipation proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation

  • Antietam convinces Lincoln it is time to end slavery

  • Emancipation Proclamation ended slavery in states at war with the US

    - Changed the Northern war goal from preserving the Union to freeing slaves