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Unit 7. THE Glorious Messiness of English. Churchill set the tone of his leadership in his first report to the House of Commons, " I would say to the House, as I said to those who have joined the government I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat."

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unit 7

Unit 7

THE Glorious Messiness of English

Churchill set the tone of his leadership in his first report to the House of Commons, " I would say to the House, as I said to those who have joined the government I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat."
  • It was only the first of his stirring wartime speeches, which knit the country together and inspired people around the world.
sir winston leonard spencer churchill november 30 1874 january 24 1965
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (November 30, 1874 -January 24, 1965)
  • Political Party: Conservative
  • Official Title: Prime minister
  • Term : 1940-1945 Prime minister of the United
  • Kingdom
  • 1951- 1955 Prime minister of the United
  • Kingdom
Known for: Leading the United Kingdom and the
  • Allies to victory in World War II.
  • Award: 1953 Nobel Prize in literature
  • Quote "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil,
  • tears and sweat." May 13, 1940; part of
  • Churchill's first speech as prime minister
  • to the House of Commons.
important works
Important Works
  • The World Crisis
  • The Second World War
  • History of the English Speaking Peoples
Old English Period(AD449 to 1066 or 1100)
  • Middle English ( 1066 or 1100 to 1450 or
  • 1500)
  • Early Modern English( about 1500 to 1660),
  • Late Modern English (about 1660 to the
  • present time)
  • Pidgin English
descriptive and comparative linguistics

A Descriptive Linguistics

phonemes (distinctive sounds): /p/ and /b/,

Morphemes: sounds combined to create, or units of sound that carry meaning: push and bush.

or prefixes (pre- in preview) and suffixes (-

ness in openness).

In the sentence
  • “She pushed the bush.”
  • the morpheme she, a pronoun, is the subject;
  • push, a transitive verb, is the verb;
  • the, a definite article, is the determiner; bush, a noun, is the object.
phonemics (finding phonemes), morphology (discovering morphemes), and syntax (describing the order of morphemes and their function)
comparative linguistics
Comparative linguistics
  • Comparative linguistics is the study and analysis, by means of written records, of the origins and relatedness of different languages.
the Sanskrit word bhratar for “brother” resembles the Latin word frater, the Greek word phrater, (and the English word brother).
  • Fraternity --sorority
The Indo-European, relating Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, German, English, and other Asian and European languages;
  • TheAlgonquian, relating Fox, Cree, Menomini, Ojibwa, and other Native North American languages;
  • TheBantu, relating Swahili, Xhosa, Zulu, Kikuyu, and other African languages.
  • Psycholinguistics
  • Computational Linguistics
  • Applied Linguistics
  • Anthropological Linguistics
  • Neurolinguistics
ferdinand de saussure
Ferdinand de Saussure
  • Cours de linguistique générale (1916; Course in General Linguistics, 1959). is considered the foundation of the modern field of linguistics. Saussure made a distinction between actual speech, or spoken language, and the knowledge underlying speech that speakers share about what is grammatical.
noam chomsky
Noam Chomsky
  • transformational-generative grammar
  • bough
  • Plough
  • Cough
  • Thorough
  • Thought
  • Through
  • rough
historical words
Historical Words
  • Nixon’s Odyssey to China.
  • Quixotic (Cervantes’s Don Quixote)
  • Utopian
  • The US is raising a Frankenstein by providing hardware to that country.
  • Faustian ----- Faustian Spirit
  • The pickets did not allow themselves to be provoked, despite the unruly crowds that gathered to hector them.
backformation editor edit
Backformation: editor---edit
  • Burgle
  • Swindle
  • Peddle
  • Emote
  • Orate
  • Reminisce
  • Enthuse
  • Diagnose
  • Coze
  • Peeve
Who authed this
  • He decided to bach it all his life (bachelor)
  • I prefer a polygamist who doesn’t polyg to a monogamist who doesn’t monog.
  • The tourists can helicopt to Jiuzhaigou.
房地产类: “期房”、“商住楼”、“商品房”,比如教育类的“雅思”、“司考”,
  • 军事类: “天军”、“海警”,
  • 环保类: “阳伞效应”、“代际公平”、“代内公平
  • 时尚类: “哈日”、“韩流”、“波波族”。正是鉴于
The issue of insanity as a defense in criminal cases is at the interface of medicine, law and ethics.
  • The delegation is composed of people from a wide spectrum of professions.
  • 逼力:(港)刹车,来自英语的brake。
  • 波打:(港台)葡萄牙产的葡萄酒。来自英语的port。
  • 波楼:(港)台球房,来自英语的poolroom。
  • 卜非:(台)自助餐,来自英语的buffet。
  • 乐透:(台)彩票,乐透来自英的lottery。
  • 多妈多:(台)炸面包圈,来自英语的tomato。
  • 燕梳:(港)保险,来自英语的insure。
  • 优痞:(台)雅皮士,城市职业青年,来自英语的yuppie。
  • 仄纸:(港)支票,“仄”是英语cheque的译音。
  • 浜格:(港)西式煎薄饼饼,来自英语的pancake。
  • 宝特瓶:(台)塑料饮料瓶,来自英语的potable的译音。
“纸公司”,台湾指的是“只办理了注册而无实际业务的公司“,英语paper company的直译。
  • “草根阶层”,流行于港台,指的是“平民阶层“,英语grassroots的直译。
  • “超博士”,流行于台湾,相当于大陆的“博士后“,英语post-doctor的对译。
  • 1.粉笔在台湾又称为“白墨”,来自日语はくほく。
  • 2.台湾的“埠头”,意为“码头”,来自日语的ふとぅ。
  • 3.台湾的“超勤”,意为“加班”,来自日语的ちょぅきんほ。
words from latin
Words from Latin
  • Shrine priest bishop nun
  • Monk pope psalm Sabbath
  • Apostle litany shrift
words from the east
Words From the East
  • Kamikaze (神风)
  • Pepper
  • Ju-jitsu (柔道)
  • Phoenix
  • Orange
  • Ginger ( Sanskrit )
william the conqueror was king of england from 1066 to 1087
William the Conqueror, was king of England from 1066 to 1087
  • Born in Falaise, France, William was the illegitimate son of Robert I, duke of Normandy, and Arletta, a tanner’s daughter, and is therefore sometimes called William the Bastard
Battle of Hastings, October 14, 1066,
  • between a national army led by Harold II, Saxon king of England, and an invasion force led by William, Duke of Normandy, afterward
  • Rise-mount-ascend
  • Ask-question-interrogate
  • East-oriental
  • West-occidental
Danish linguist Otto Jespersen, A Modern English Grammar (pub. in four parts, 1909-31), and The Philosophy of Grammar (1924).
effect affect influence
Effect, affect, influence
  • The prisoner _____ their escape
  • The new system of accounting will _____ a reduction in costs.
  • The climate has _____ his health.
  • I am afraid that this adventure has rather _____ your admiration of her charisma.
  • The judge has been _____ in his decision.
  • The prisoner effected their escape
  • The new system of accounting will effect a reduction in costs.
  • The climate has affected his health.
  • I am afraid that this adventure has rather affected your admiration of her five eyes.
  • The judge has been influenced in his decision.
African American
  • Beta carotene
  • Cyberpunk
  • Designated driver
  • Dweeb
  • Hip-hop
  • Liposuction
  • Wuss