ANABOLIC STEROIDS- They increase muscle mass and develop bone growth, therefore increase strength, while at the same time allow the athlete to train harder. It can also increase aggression. This is the most common drug used to enhance performance. The drug mimics the male hormone Testosterone. Side effects include the deepening of the voice, facial hair, mood swings and anxiety. liver disease and infertility in women are also common side effects.
HUMAN GROWTH HORMONEHGH • Naturally occurring hormone that regulates growth • Controls muscle, bone, collagen and fat metabolism • Exercise is a major stimulus for HGH production • May well be the drug of choice across a range of sprinting and explosive activities
HUMAN GROWTH HORMONEHGH • Can enhance performance through increasing muscle mass and repairing bones, ligaments and tendons • The use of HGH was first noted when a phial of the substance was found in a changing room at the 1992 Barcelona Olympics.
HUMAN GROWTH HORMONEHGH • Adverse side effects include: • Joint pain • Joint swelling • Fluid retention • High blood pressure • Abnormal bone and cartilage growth • Irregular heart rythms • Diabetes • Joint and facial deformities • Shut down of pituitary gland
NEW YORK — Sylvester Stallone says he used human growth hormone to get buff for the new "Rambo" movie, and defends its use. "HGH (human growth hormone) is nothing," the 61-year-old actor tells Time magazine in its Feb. 4 issue. "Anyone who calls it a steroid is grossly misinformed." Because it is nearly undetectable, HGH has become a substance of great concern in major league baseball and other sports battling allegations of rampant doping. "Testosterone to me is so important for a sense of well-being when you get older," he says. "Everyone over 40 years old would be wise to investigate it because it increases the quality of your life. Mark my words. In 10 years it will be over the counter."
BETA BLOCKERS • Have a calming effect and reduce tension • Used in sports where accuracy and a steady hand is required e.g. archery and shooting • Work by blocking the action of the sympathetic nervous system which mediates the ‘fight or flight’ response.
BETA BLOCKERS • Adverse effects include: • Cold hands and feet • Tiredness and sleep disturbance • Impotence • Dizziness • Wheezing • Digestive tract problems • Skin rashes • Dry eyes
Have a calming effect and reduce tension • Used in sports where accuracy and a steady hand is required e.g. archery and shooting
WHAT ARE PROHIBITED METHODS ? Blood doping is a banned process not a banned drug. If an athlete trains at high altitude, the oxygen carrying capacity of their blood increases. Athletes train at high altitude for a period of time, and then have as much as 2 pints of blood taken from their body, and the red blood cells frozen. The body’s system quickly recovers and the normal 8 pints of blood is restored.
Near a competition day, the red blood cells are put back into the athlete’s bloodstream and this process is thought to increase their performance by as much as 20%.
1886The first recorded death was in 1886 when a cyclist, Linton, died from an overdose of trimethyl. • 1904The first near death in modern Olympics where a marathon runner, Thomas Hicks, was using a mixture of brandy and strychnine. • No specific dateMost drugs involved alcohol and strychnine. Heroin, caffeine and cocaine were also widely used until heroin and cocaine became available only on prescription.
1930sAmphetamines were produced and quickly became the choice overstrychnine. • 1950sThe Soviet team used male hormones to increase power and strength and the Americans developed steroids as a response. • 1952One of the first noticeable doping cases involving amphetamines which occurred at the Winter Olympics. Several speed skaters became ill and needed medical attention. • 1960At the Olympics, Danish cyclist, Kurt Jensen, collapsed and died from an amphetamine overdose. • 1963Pressure started to mount on the IOC. The Council of Europe set up a Committee on drugs but couldn't decide on a definition of doping.
1964There was a noticeable increase in the muscular appearance of the athletes at the Olympics and drug use was suspected. • 1967The IOC took action after the death of Tommy Simpson (due to the illegal taking of amphetamines) in the Tour de France. • 1968The IOC decided on a definition of doping and developed a banned list of substances. Testing began at the Olympic games • 1988At the Seoul Olympics, Ben Johnson tested positive for a banned anabolic steroid, was stripped of his gold medal and was suspended for two years.
1988Drug use had continued. Due to the significance of the problem, the Senate Standing Committee on Environment, Recreation and the Arts began an inquiry into the use by Australian sportsmen and sportswomen of performance enhancing drugs and the role to be played by Commonwealth agencies. • 1989An interim report of the Senate Standing Committee on Environment, Recreation and the Arts was published. • 1990A second report of the Senate Standing Committee on Environment, Recreation and the Arts was published.
1990The Australian Sports Drug Agency was established by the Australian Sports Drug Agency Act 1990 (ASDA Act). • 1991The Agency became a statutory authority.
UK SPORT today launched what it considers to be the world’s most comprehensive and up-to-date on-line drug information service for athletes. The database will allow athletes, coaches, team doctors and other support staff the opportunity check the status of most UK licensed pharmaceutical products or licensed substances according to sport’s anti-doping bible - the Olympic Movement Anti-Doping Code (the list published by the IOC and WADA about what is prohibited in sport).
THE WORLD ANTI-DOPING AGENCY (WADA) The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was established on 10 November 1999. Its mission is to promote and coordinate the fight against doping in sport internationally. Thanks to this independent agency, the Olympic Movement and public authorities worldwide are able to intensify their efforts to banish drugs from sport.
What is Nandrolone? • Simply put, nandrolone is a performance-enhancing stimulant. • The current debate centres on whether it can be produced naturally. • Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone naturally produced by the kidneys. • However, this hormone can be artificially produced to improve the performance of, for example, athletes or cyclists by injection.
The latest challenge centres on the use of erythopoietin (EPO) which increases blood oxygenation by forming additional red blood cells. This improves stamina and the drug can be produced comparatively cheaply. The first testing of EPO was in 1994. The IOC’s anti doping campaign is based upon three principles:- 1] The protection of the health of the athletes 2] Respect for medical and sports ethics. 3] Ensuring an equal chance for everyone during competition.
Its overall effect is to increase endurance and, in athletics, it is used mainly by long distance-runners. • It is injected under the skin and stimulates red blood cell production. • The more red cells there are in your body, the more oxygen that can be delivered to the muscles. • This delays the onset of fatigue, meaning an athlete can run harder and for longer.
Past World and Olympic 5000m silver medallist Ali Saidi-Sief tested positive for the banned steroid nandrolone
Should drugs be used • At what point does drug taking put the notion of fair competition into question? • How do we stop drug taking • Should they be used in training?
When it comes to institutionalised doping the former East Germans must surely lead the field. Following the disintegration of East Germany in 1989, it was discovered that a state-sponsored plan had ordered the systematic doping of East German athletes during the 1970s and 80s.
CASE STUDY: DWAIN CHAMBERS • Dwain Anthony Chambers (born 5 April 1978) is an English sprinter of Afro-Caribbean descent. He has won medals on the international stage numerous times and is one of the fastest European sprinters in the history of recorded athletics. His primary event is the 100 metres sprint, in which he has the second fastest time by a British sprinter. He is the European record holder for the 60 metres and 4 × 100 metres relay events with 6.42 seconds and 37.73 s respectively. He received a two-year ban in 2003 for taking performance enhancing drugs.
CASE STUDY: DWAIN CHAMBERS • Chambers was a promising young athlete, setting a junior world record of 10.06 s in the 100 m. He was the bronze medallist in the 1999 World Championships and made his first Olympic appearance at the Sydney 2000 Games; he turned in the best 100 m performance by a European at both events. By 2001, he had become the top British sprinter, breaking the 10 second barrier twice at the Edmonton World Championships. He became the 100 m European champion and record holder in 2002 but, in October 2003, he tested positive for the banned steroid THG in a drugs check. Chambers received a two-year athletics ban, and a lifetime Olympic ban. He had all of his racing accomplishments since 2002 annulled, wiping away his 100 m European record.
CASE STUDY: DWAIN CHAMBERS • Chambers returned to the track and field circuit in June 2006, and won gold with his teammates in the 4 × 100 m at the 2006 European Championships but a feud with Darren Campbell tainted the victory. Disillusioned with athletics, Chambers joined the Hamburg Sea Devils of the NFL Europa league in early 2007. After the league folded, Chambers returned to sprinting, winning a silver medal in the 60 m at the 2008 IAAF World Indoor Championships, and filed unsuccessful appeals of his Olympic ban. He briefly looked to rugby league as an alternative to the hostility he faced from fans and peers in athletics, but his trial with the Castleford Tigers was unsuccessful. He has since returned to sprinting and published an autobiography, Rage Against Me.
“Current rules on drugs aren’t working and it would be fairer to make drugs available to everyone”Wilf Paish GB Olympic Coach Discuss the view that drugs in the Olympics are an acceptable way of enhancing performance, or does this contradict the Olympic Ideal?
Why is drug abuse a difficult problem facing Olympic authorities?
ANSWER • Long history of drug abuse • Reward • Systematic use of drugs by Eastern Bloc countries • Used to ensure success / building / super power • Vast variety of drugs used EPO • IOC can only legislate against what is on the banned list • More money spent on drug development than testing