Factors affecting Distribution of populations

# Factors affecting Distribution of populations

## Factors affecting Distribution of populations

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
##### Presentation Transcript

1. Factors affecting Distribution of populations

2. Factors affecting the distribution of populations • Tolerance: An organism’s ability to survive variation in environmental conditions.

3. Factors affecting the distribution of populations • Tolerance: An organism’s ability to survive variation in environmental conditions. - Think about your own tolerance to temperature. For 3 mins, ask your neighbour what you think you would do in -1 degrees, 22 degrees, 30 degrees, and 35+ degrees.

4. Factors affecting the distribution of populations • Tolerance: An organism’s ability to survive variation in environmental conditions. Death / Lower limit of tolerance / Physiological Stress / Optimum / Physiologcial Stress /Upper limit of tolerance / Death

5. Factors affecting the distribution of populations • Tolerance: An organism’s ability to survive variation in environmental conditions. Death / Lower limit of tolerance / Physiological Stress / Optimum / Physiologcial Stress /Upper limit of tolerance / Death • Acclimation: change in tolerance if change is slow.

6. Factors affecting the distribution of populations • Tolerance: An organism’s ability to survive variation in environmental conditions. Death / Lower limit of tolerance / Physiological Stress / Optimum / Physiologcial Stress /Upper limit of tolerance / Death • Acclimation: change in tolerance if change is slow. Same as before, discuss with your neighbour this situation: You have two fish tanks with four fish in each. In one tank you add a tablespoon of salt every day. What would happen?

7. Factors affecting the distribution of populations • Tolerance: An organism’s ability to survive variation in environmental conditions. Death / Lower limit of tolerance / Physiological Stress / Optimum / Physiologcial Stress /Upper limit of tolerance / Death • Acclimation: change in tolerance if change is slow. • Geographical barrier: Simple – the populations can’t get there.

8. Factors affecting the distribution of populations • Tolerance: An organism’s ability to survive variation in environmental conditions. Death / Lower limit of tolerance / Physiological Stress / Optimum / Physiologcial Stress /Upper limit of tolerance / Death • Acclimation: change in tolerance if change is slow. • Geographical barrier: Simple – the populations can’t get there. Discuss some geographical barriers for populations.

9. Factors affecting the distribution of populations • Tolerance: An organism’s ability to survive variation in environmental conditions. Death / Lower limit of tolerance / Physiological Stress / Optimum / Physiologcial Stress /Upper limit of tolerance / Death • Acclimation: change in tolerance if change is slow. • Geographical barrier: Simple – the populations can’t get there. • Leibig’s law: Whatever essential environmental factor is present in the least favourable amount.

10. Factors affecting the distribution of populations • Tolerance: An organism’s ability to survive variation in environmental conditions. Death / Lower limit of tolerance / Physiological Stress / Optimum / Physiologcial Stress /Upper limit of tolerance / Death • Acclimation: change in tolerance if change is slow. • Geographical barrier: Simple – the populations can’t get there. • Leibig’s law: Whatever essential environmental factor is present in the least favourable amount. What could this mean?

11. Factors affecting the distribution of populations • Tolerance: An organism’s ability to survive variation in environmental conditions. Death / Lower limit of tolerance / Physiological Stress / Optimum / Physiologcial Stress /Upper limit of tolerance / Death • Acclimation: change in tolerance if change is slow. • Geographical barrier: Simple – the populations can’t get there. • Leibig’s law: Whatever essential environmental factor is present in the least favourable amount. - Eg. Farms around here = cattle got ‘bush sickness’ because they were lacking an essential mineral – cobalt. Now they flourish.

12. Controls on a population • Abiotic -

13. Controls on a population • Abiotic – droughts, fire, flood, storms, pesticides etc.

14. Controls on a population • Abiotic – droughts, fire, flood, storms, pesticides etc. Density-independent =

15. Controls on a population • Abiotic – droughts, fire, flood, storms, pesticides etc. Density-independent = A fire will burn trees whether there are few or many. Density-dependent = space, water and substrate where the organism lives. Dependent because

16. Controls on a population • Abiotic – droughts, fire, flood, storms, pesticides etc. Density-independent = A fire will burn trees whether there are few or many. Density-dependent = space, water and substrate where the organism lives. Dependent because if there is a limited amount of space, there will be a limited number of organisms.

17. Controls on a population • Biotic -

18. Controls on a population • Biotic – living influences. Members of same species, members of another species.

19. Controls on a population • Biotic – living influences. Members of same species, members of another species. Density-dependent = hit harder when pop. numbers are high.

20. Controls on a population • Biotic – living influences. Members of same species, members of another species. Density-dependent = hit harder when pop. numbers are high. EG?

21. Regulating factors • What are some regulating facts on a population?

22. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource:

23. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment.

24. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment. Survival of the fittest – best competitors for resource.

25. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment. Survival of the fittest – best competitors for resource. This is INTRASPECIFIC competition.

26. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment. Survival of the fittest – best competitors for resource. This is INTRASPECIFIC competition. • Lack of food:

27. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment. Survival of the fittest – best competitors for resource. This is INTRASPECIFIC competition. • Lack of food: limits re-productivity.

28. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment. Survival of the fittest – best competitors for resource. This is INTRASPECIFIC competition. • Lack of food: limits re-productivity. EG. Flour beetles become cannibals!

29. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment. Survival of the fittest – best competitors for resource. This is INTRASPECIFIC competition. • Lack of food: limits re-productivity. EG. Flour beetles become cannibals! • Lack of space:

30. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment. Survival of the fittest – best competitors for resource. This is INTRASPECIFIC competition. • Lack of food: limits re-productivity. EG. Flour beetles become cannibals! • Lack of space: Crowding – plants don’t grow well.

31. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment. Survival of the fittest – best competitors for resource. This is INTRASPECIFIC competition. • Lack of food: limits re-productivity. EG. Flour beetles become cannibals! • Lack of space: Crowding – plants don’t grow well. EG. Gannets – No space = no breeding that year.

32. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment. Survival of the fittest – best competitors for resource. This is INTRASPECIFIC competition. • Lack of food: limits re-productivity. EG. Flour beetles become cannibals! • Lack of space: Crowding – plants don’t grow well. EG. Gannets – No space = no breeding that year. Not fully understood, but can cause stress syndrome – lack of hormones released when crowded and reproductive organs can shrink and become useless....

33. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment. Survival of the fittest – best competitors for resource. This is INTRASPECIFIC competition. • Lack of food: limits re-productivity. EG. Flour beetles become cannibals! • Lack of space: Crowding – plants don’t grow well. EG. Gannets – No space = no breeding that year. • Territories:

34. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment. Survival of the fittest – best competitors for resource. This is INTRASPECIFIC competition. • Lack of food: limits re-productivity. EG. Flour beetles become cannibals! • Lack of space: Crowding – plants don’t grow well. EG. Gannets – No space = no breeding that year. • Territories: Spreads population out.

35. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment. Survival of the fittest – best competitors for resource. This is INTRASPECIFIC competition. • Lack of food: limits re-productivity. EG. Flour beetles become cannibals! • Lack of space: Crowding – plants don’t grow well. EG. Gannets – No space = no breeding that year. • Territories: Spreads population out. Strongest = best territory.

36. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment. Survival of the fittest – best competitors for resource. This is INTRASPECIFIC competition. • Lack of food: limits re-productivity. EG. Flour beetles become cannibals! • Lack of space: Crowding – plants don’t grow well. EG. Gannets – No space = no breeding that year. • Territories: Spreads population out. Strongest = best territory. No territory = no mating.

37. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment. Survival of the fittest – best competitors for resource. This is INTRASPECIFIC competition. • Lack of food: limits re-productivity. EG. Flour beetles become cannibals! • Lack of space: Crowding – plants don’t grow well. EG. Gannets – No space = no breeding that year. • Territories: Spreads population out. Strongest = best territory. No territory = no mating. Heirachies = pecking order – top gets best food, shelter and mates. Ensures best genes mate with best genes.

38. Regulating factors • Competition with species for limited resource: same species = same requirements from environment. Survival of the fittest – best competitors for resource. This is INTRASPECIFIC competition. • Lack of food: limits re-productivity. EG. Flour beetles become cannibals! • Lack of space: Crowding – plants don’t grow well. EG. Gannets – No space = no breeding that year. • Territories: Spreads population out. Strongest = best territory. No territory = no mating. Heirachies = pecking order – top gets best food, shelter and mates. Ensures best genes mate with best genes.

39. Regulating Factors • Self-poisoning:

40. Regulating Factors • Self-poisoning: bacteria. Wastes accumulate and kill before the food runs out!

41. Regulating Factors • Self-poisoning: bacteria. Wastes accumulate and kill before the food runs out! Interesting: Fungi produce penicillin which kills bacteria, but it also slows down the fungi’s growth rate.

42. Regulating Factors • Self-poisoning: bacteria. Wastes accumulate and kill before the food runs out! Probably MORE interesting: yeast produce ethanol. However yeast will stop growing when the alcohol reaches 12% (wine). If CO2 is not allowed to escape, the yeasts are poisoned = homemade ginger beer is fizzy, but not very alcoholic.

43. Regulating Factors • Self-poisoning: bacteria. Wastes accumulate and kill before the food runs out! • Disease:

44. Regulating Factors • Self-poisoning: bacteria. Wastes accumulate and kill before the food runs out! • Disease: Closer animals are to eachother, easier it is for disease to spread.

45. Regulating Factors • Self-poisoning: bacteria. Wastes accumulate and kill before the food runs out! • Disease: Closer animals are to eachother, easier it is for disease to spread. Also, high population = more potential for range of disease. (EG. Super bug / human population too big?)

46. Regulating Factors • Self-poisoning: bacteria. Wastes accumulate and kill before the food runs out! • Disease: Closer animals are to eachother, easier it is for disease to spread. Also, high population = more potential for range of disease. • Parasitism:

47. Regulating Factors • Self-poisoning: bacteria. Wastes accumulate and kill before the food runs out! • Disease: Closer animals are to eachother, easier it is for disease to spread. Also, high population = more potential for range of disease. • Parasitism: Live off host, but don’t kill them = keep numbers in check.

48. Competition between dif. species • Usually results in

49. Competition between dif. species • Usually results in one population getting less until it DIES!

50. Competition between dif. species • Usually results in one population getting less until it DIES! • This is all to do with the Gauseprinciple (we did this a few lessons ago) • Predation: