The Renaissance. “Rebirth” 1300-1500s-ish Move from medieval to modern. Why did it begin in Italy? 1. Location. Legacy of Ancient Rome Catholic Church. Why did it begin in Italy? 2. Trade Revival. Mediterranean Sea & many ports City-states Powerful family Wealthy merchant class.
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The Renaissance “Rebirth” 1300-1500s-ish Move from medieval to modern
Why did it begin in Italy?1. Location • Legacy of Ancient Rome • Catholic Church
Why did it begin in Italy?2. Trade Revival • Mediterranean Sea & many ports • City-states • Powerful family • Wealthy merchant class
Why did it begin in Italy?3. Patrons • Florence & the Medici • Bankers • “Uncrowned Kings” • Patron—supporter of arts • Learn from Classical (Roman) art—what are the characteristics of Roman art?
What was the Renaissance? Time of cultural creativity and political change
New World View: • Influenced by Greece & Rome • Middle Ages seen as “backwards” • Focus on eternal, religion • Focus on the individual & human experience (here and now) • “Man can do all things, if they will” –Leon Battista Alberti • Adventure and Exploration • The Prince by Machiavelli • Describes the perfect prince • “The end justifies the means,” “It is better to be feared than loved,” “Force and prudence, then, are the might of all the governments that ever have been or will be in the world” • “Renaissance Man”—talent in everything • The Courtier (1528) by Castiglione
The Courtier • A true man should be: • Charming, witty, & well-educated in the classics • Skilled in sword-fighting, wrestling, & horse riding • Dance, sing, play music, write poetry • Above all, have self-control and be well-mannered
Humanism • Response to Medieval scholasticism • Classical (Grk-Rmn) Studies • worldly subjects > religious studies • Find fulfillment in daily life • Education fuels creativity • Grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history • “Father of Humanism”: Petrarch
New Techniques in Art • Religious topics, famous people • Realistic • Perspective—try to paint 3D • Shading & Reflection of Light
Leonardo da Vinci • The Essential Renaissance Man • Artist, musician, scientist, inventor, engineer….. • Most famous artist: Mona Lisa, The Last Supper
Michelangelo • Sculptor • Pieta, David • Artist • Sistine Chapel in Rome • Four years • Most done standing on a platform • Architect • Designed St. Peter’s Basilica Dome • Never finishes
Raphael • Artist • Blends Christian and Classical • Modannas (mother of Christ) • School of Athens
Donatello • Sculptor • Realism and natural (Greek)
Albrecht Dürer • “German Leonardo” • Studies in Italy & brings ideas back to Germany • Engravings, religious themes, details • Uses math and science in art
Other Artists • Jan & Hubert van Eyck • Everyday life • Rich detail • Pieter Bruegel • Vibrant colors • Peasant life • Hans Holbein the Younger • German • Portraits • Realistic & Symbolic
Northern Writers • Erasmus: Dutch Priest, Christian Humanist • Classical knowledge in Christian studies • Spreads ideas to wider public • Called for church reform & Bible in vernacular • Thomas More • English • Social Reform • Utopia—ideal society
William Shakespeare • English poet and playwright • Common themes in everyday settings • Used common language • Very popular • favorite of Queen Elizabeth I
Gutenberg • First printing press with moveable type • Printed Bible • Books are now: • Easy to produce • Cheap • Available to all • Ideas spread quickly