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Concepts & Foundations of Remote Sensing. L&K pages 1 – 12 GEO 410 Dr.Garver. Powerpoints : 3\_energy.ppt & 4\_LK\_pg1-12.ppt Readings: Sections 1.1 to 1.4 of online text & LK1 reading Concepts/Calculations: EMR, EMS Wavelength vs. frequency Visible, IR (near IR, Thermal IR)

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concepts foundations of remote sensing

Concepts & Foundations of Remote Sensing

L&K pages 1 – 12

GEO 410

Dr.Garver

quiz 1
Powerpoints: 3_energy.ppt & 4_LK_pg1-12.ppt
  • Readings: Sections 1.1 to 1.4 of online text & LK1 reading
  • Concepts/Calculations:
    • EMR, EMS
      • Wavelength vs. frequency
      • Visible, IR (near IR, Thermal IR)
      • Reflected vs. emitted
    • SB Law, Weins Law – Sun/Earth example
    • How energy interacts with atmosphere (absorption, scattering (3 types), reflection)
      • Albedo
    • Atm. Windows, main gases that absorb
Quiz 1
1 1 introduction
Defines r.s.
  • Electromagnetic energy sensors on airborne and spaceborne platforms
  • Sensors acquire data on the way earth/atm features reflect and emit EMR.
1.1 Introduction
figure 1
Electromagnetic r.s. of earth resources
  • Illustrates generalized process and elements involved in r.s.
    • Data acquisition (a to f) – GEO 410
      • a – d <= energy/atm
      • e - f <= sensors/data
    • Data analysis (g to h) – GEO 420
      • interpretation/analysis/output/GIS/end users
Figure 1
remainder of chapter basic principles of r s
Fundamentals of EMR
  • Interactions w/atm
  • Interactions with surface
  • Ideal r.s. system
    • Limitations
  • Close relationship between r.s., GPS and GIS
Remainder of chapter – Basic principles of r.s.
1 2 energy sources radiation principles
EM spectrum
  • C = vl (1.1)
  • Wave theory - EM waves obey this eqn
  • Categorize EMR by wavelength along spectrum
1.2 Energy Sources & Radiation Principles
1 2 energy sources radiation principles1
VISIBLE = 0.4 – 0.7
    • Blue = 0.4 - mm 0.5 mm
    • Green= 0.5 - 0.6 mm
    • Red= 0.6 - 0.7 mm
  • IR – only thermal IR is related to heat
  • Wave theory C = vl eqn 1.1
  • Particle Theory Q = hv eqn 1.2
    • Discrete photons
  • Can relate these two models:
      • Q= hc/l eqn 1.3
1.2 Energy Sources & Radiation Principles
1 2 energy sources radiation principles2
Energy is inversely proportional to wavelength.
    • Longer wavelength = less energy
    • Implication for r.s.- microwave harder to detect than VIS or IR.
    • Systems operating at longer wavelengths need to view large areas of earth to get a detectable signal.
1.2 Energy Sources & Radiation Principles
slide9
Sun is source of EMR for r. s.
  • But, all matter at T above absolute zero (0 K) emits EMR.
  • So, terrestrial objects are also sources of radiation but at a different wavelength and magnitude.
      • SB Law (1.4)
      • Energy emitted varies as T4
slide10
Blackbody – hypothetical ideal radiator
    • Absorbs and emits all energy equally
  • Dominant wavelength
    • Wein’s law (1.5)
    • Figure 1.4 – spectral distribution of energy
    • Sun vs. Earth
    • Dividing line between reflected and emitted
    • Radar – active not passive (supplies own energy source)
      • Flash on a camera
1 3 energy interactions in atm
All radiation detected by sensors passes through some pathlength of atm
  • Scattering – unpredictable - different size particles
  • Absorbers – effective loss of energy, most effective absorbers (water vapor, CO2, O3)
  • Atmospheric windows – wavelengths on which the atm is particularly transmissive.
  • Fig. 1.5
1.3 Energy Interactions in Atm
slide12
2 Energy Sources Used in R. S.

R. S. is limited to Atmospheric Windows

Common Sensors

Fig. 1.5

slide13
Fig. 1.5
    • Vis range coincides with an atm window
    • Thermal IR bands: 3 - 5 mm and 8 – 14 mm
    • Multispectral scanners – sense simultaneously through multiple narrow wavelength windows through Vis and IR
    • Radar and passive micro: 1mm – 1m window
slide14
Take home message:
  • Interaction and interdependence between primary sources of EMR, atm windows and spectral sensitivity of sensors.
  • Need to consider 1) spectral sensitivity of sensors available,
  • 2) presence/absence of atm windows in the spectral range you are interested in, and
  • 3) the source, magnitude , and spectral composition of the energy available in these ranges.
  • End of section 1.3
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