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Close Reading

Close Reading

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Close Reading

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  1. Close Reading

  2. “Every book has a skeleton hidden between its covers. Your job as an analytic reader is to find it.” Adler and Van Doren, 1940/1972

  3. “X-ray the book”

  4. Use a short passage “Read with a pencil” Note what’s confusing Pay attention to patterns Give your students the chance to struggle a bit Creating a Close Reading

  5. Productive failure

  6. Argumentation and Discussion

  7. The Helping Curriculum

  8. Accountable Talk Describes high levels of engagement and critical thinking among learners • Accountability that discussions are on the topic • Accountability to use accurate information • Accountability to think deeply about what is being said

  9. What Accountable Talk Sounds Like • Press for clarification and explanation: Could you describe what you mean? • Require justification of proposals and challenges: Where did you find that information? • Recognize and challenge misconception: I don’t agree because ... • Demand evidence for claims and arguments: Can you give me an example? • Interpret and use each other’s statements: David suggested … Institute for Learning, University of Pittsburgh

  10. Moves from literal to interpretive Requires students to return to the text to formulate responses Text-dependent Questioning

  11. Question-Answer Relationships (Raphael, 1984)

  12. A Close Reading of “Salvador, Late or Early” Cisneros, , S. (1991). Woman Hollering Creek. Cisneros, 1991

  13. Investigative Question How do short story writers illuminate the interior life of characters?

  14. Establishing Purpose To examine how the author sheds light on the interior life of this character using poetic language in order to deeply affect the reader.

  15. First Reading: Students Read and Write Independently • Read with a pencil to annotate text • What powerful words or phrases affect you? Circle • What confuses you? Underline • Quick-write • What are your impressions of Salvador and the people in his life?

  16. Discussion: Partner Talk to Check Meaning Describe your impressions of Salvador and the people in his life. Remember to use accountable talk (asking questions, providing evidence from the text, and comparing and contrasting your impressions with one another.

  17. Second Reading: Teacher Modeling Read the entire passage aloud, without interruption. Be sure to orient students to the text and ask them to follow along.

  18. Third Reading: Teacher Think Aloud Read the entire passage again, highlighting places in the text where you notice the author’s use of poetic language. Think aloud about how you interpret it. Be sure to orient students to the text and ask them to follow along.

  19. Text-dependent Questions Post-it notes began as an idea that didn’t work, but then became a very useful product. What was the sequence of events that led to this invention? Right There Question

  20. Text-dependent Questions How does Cisneros use color? To what effect? Think and Search Question

  21. Text-dependent Questions How does Cisneros use school words? To what effect? Think and Search Question

  22. Text-dependent Questions Examine the use of contrasts again. What does the author want us to know about Salvador? Author and You Question

  23. Text-dependent Questions Would a title change to Heather, Late or Early change your perspective? Why? How would this story differ if was written by Salvador’s mother? On My Own Question

  24. Journal Writing Students are gathering notes for the development of an essay that explains their findings of the investigative question, “In what ways do short story authors illuminate a character’s interior life?” For this journal entry, students write a short summary of “Salvador, Late or Early” and discuss at least two literary techniques the author used to describe Salvador.

  25. Guiding Instruction

  26. “As easy as learning to ride a bike” “As easy as learning to ride a bike”

  27. Scaffolds extend the range of the worker

  28. Let’s make a Foldable Guided Instruction fold Comprehension Robust Questions Direct Explanation Prompts Cues

  29. Robust questions Prompts Cues Direct explanation and modeling

  30. Robust questions Prompts Cues Direct explanation and modeling

  31. Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal? Student: An animal that stays awake at night. Teacher: Good. What is a diurnal animal? I-R-E

  32. Robust Questions to Check for Understanding

  33. Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal? Student: An animal that stays awake at night. Teacher: Tell me more about that. Does a nocturnal animal have special characteristics? Student: Well, it doesn’t sleep a lot. Elaboration

  34. What When Where Who Which Why How Suppose Justify Example To move to higher-order questions Use Less Of Use More Of

  35. Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal? Student: An animal that stays awake at night. Teacher: Tell me more about that. Does a nocturnal animal have special characteristics? Student: Well, it doesn’t sleep a lot. Misconception

  36. Prompting for Cognitive and Metacognitive Thinking

  37. Skill is the ability to apply concepts when not prompted to do so.

  38. Questioning is about assessment Prompting is about doing

  39. Background knowledge prompts invite students to use what they know to resolve problems

  40. Process or Procedure Prompts To perform a specific task

  41. Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal? Student: An animal that stays awake at night. Teacher: Tell me more about that. Does a nocturnal animal have special characteristics? Student: Well, it doesn’t sleep a lot. Teacher: I’m thinking of those pictures we saw of the great horned owl and the slow loris in the daytime and at night. Does your answer still work? PROMPT

  42. Cues to Shift Attention

  43. Cues Shift attention to sources of information More directandspecificthan prompts

  44. the expert commentator sees things you don’t cues do the same for novices Attention grows with competence

  45. Cues shift the learner’s attention Visual Verbal Gestural Physical Positional Environmental

  46. Whenprompting and cueing fail, it’s time for direct explanation.

  47. Direct Explanation Identify Explain Think aloud Monitor Take care not to re-assume responsibility too quickly

  48. Table Talk • How does Rita use robust questions, prompts, cues, and direct explanation to guide her students’ vocabulary learning?

  49. Making Group Work Productive

  50. How Do You Know It’s Productive?