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Instructional Development PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS (EDER675) January 20 , Seminar two PowerPoint Presentation
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Instructional Development PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS (EDER675) January 20 , Seminar two

Instructional Development PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS (EDER675) January 20 , Seminar two

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Instructional Development PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS (EDER675) January 20 , Seminar two

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  1. Instructional DevelopmentPERFORMANCE PROBLEMS (EDER675)January 20, Seminar two Remember Morton Thiocol and those pesky gaskets… that was a Mechanical and training performance problem …

  2. Agenda for this class / week 1. Discussion: Content Layout in the Text • what have we already studied? 2. Performance Problems • What they are and are not • Student Presentation, Chs 1&2 • Lecture, Performance Problems & ID • Performance Problems & Leadership 3. Case 35: Our First ID Case: The COMET Project in detail

  3. Overview of the Text Chapters - What have you studied in other classes - what is the context of this study? • Defining ID & Approaches to it • Non instructional Performance Solutions • Which projects qualify for ID solutions? • Needs Assessment • Learner Characteristics • Analyzing the Characteristics of a work setting • Work Analysis • Setting Performance Objectives • Developing Performance Measures • Sequencing Performance Objectives • Specifying / Selecting Instructional Strategies • Designing Instructional Materials • Evaluating Instruction • Instructional Management Systems • Planning & Monitoring of ID projects • Visual, Oral & Written Communication • ID Team Building and Management

  4. Performance Improvement: Related ID Issues Today • Micro Trends: • Increased demand for speed in ISD • Rapid prototyping • Group focus on workplace • Situated Learning • Increasing awareness of how ppl learn/cog/const • Expectation that ID process goes beyond pfce. • Competency = work? • Accountability’ • Designer competency push UP • Issues: • Macro Trends: • Performance Paradox • Rapid Change • Outsourcing ID • Knowledge Capital • Speed of market change • Mass customization • Globalization & Diversity

  5. The Role of ID in Solving Performance Problems • ID is an emerging profession - changing quickly. • The chief aim of Insructional Development is to improve employee performance to increase organizational efficiency and effectiveness • Performance is the achievement of results (ends) to which purposeful activities (means) are directed. • There are human, machine & company “performances” • Efficiency is the ration between resources needed & results Inputs / Outputs • Effectiveness is the match between results achieved and results desired.

  6. The Situation Specific Model of Human Performance ( Open Systems Theory) Environment Outputs Inputs Operations Feedback Discuss: This model is in Organization theory, ID theory, Psychology and management theory. What do we do when the Outputs do not match our intentions? Answer: Branch/complicate. Can we design and engineer a solution for every need - for every operational condition simply?

  7. List 10 human performance problems in your organization today…

  8. Alternate Solutions to ID in the solution of Performance Problems • Job Performance Aids • Checklists • Algorithms • Procedure Manuals • Work Samples • Reward Systems • Hygiene factors: Salary & Working Conditions • Intrinsic Rewards: Job Satisfaction, laddering.. • Selection Practices: Matching people to work • Recruitment • Job Analysis - job descriptions - pfce criteria • Tools & results match doers to the done • Organizational Redesign (28)

  9. Organizational Change as a Solution to Perforamance Problems: Outside Classical Instructional Development • Change reporting relationships • Improve info sharing • Define job responsibilities • Change job responsibilities In groups of 2, identify organizations and situations where one of the above conditions have been found. Are there instructional interventions to create these outcomes? Are there leadership interventions to create these outcomes? Are there instructional leadership interventions to create these outcomes?

  10. CASE analysis: Case 35: COMET Project • Essential Message: The importance of contextual factors in determining successful implementation of ID products can not be underestimated as we define the instructional problem. (Forecasters did not like the training solution offered to them). • Key Issues: • Design features need to include the improvement of field learning conditions (physically) • Scope of the recommendations needs to be considered: How ambitious should they be? Some are cosmetic, others impact the way the organization works (Ertmer, p. 215). • Client’s goals must match and did not… forecasters complain that module content was removed from day-to-day job tasks, while the mission statement said the forecasters must know how to draw on scientific principles. • What happened after the study: Policy was developed for shorter, CD Rom based modules with a more diverse content, where web sites updated content and provided online support. Collaborative training ventures were developed between major forecasting centres.

  11. Further Reading about Instructional Design Problems We discussed the philosophical and contextual arguments surrounding training and problems related to instructional development… What follows is a step by step guide, for consideration only, of what some theorists / designers suggest to actually define an instructional development problem… (this is part of a massive cookbook set that I warned you about… but if the books are used properly, the creation resulting is an artful and effective design and development)

  12. A Procedure for analyzing the problem in a performance improvement situation* Define the Problem Identify the Source of the Problem Determine a possible solution Communicate the results Step 1: Analyze The Problem * (Leshin, Pollock & Reigeluth, 1994). Instructional strategies and design tactics. Englewood Cliffs: NJ, Libraries Unlimited.

  13. 1A. Define the Problem 1A.1 Investigate the nature of the problem. Try to understand the problem from both the perspective of the organization and from the perspective of the employees or target learners. Ask the following questions for training performance problems: • Is there a problem? • Does the problem involve performance? If so, what is the performance problem? • Is this the real problem, or is it a symptom of a more fundamental one? • Who views it as a problem? • How does the problem compare to others? • Why is the manager dissatisfied? • What are the causes of the problem? • What are the possible solutions? • What are the constraints? • What will the company pay to correct the problem? • What are the goals for the project? Continue to obtain information from different types of peple and sources until you have a good Base of information on the nature of the problem from very different perspectives.

  14. 1A. Define the Problem 1A.2.Describe the nature of the problem. There are 2 kinds of problems - Educational problems and training problems. Training Problem In this case, define the present or actual performance and compare it to the desired performance (gap analysis). This information will be sued to derive the desired learning outcomes and to write corresponding performance objectives and measures. Educational Problem In this case, determine what knowledge (information and understandings) the target learners should have and compare it to what they typically already know. The information obtained from this analysis will be used to derive the desired learning outcomes and to write the corresponding objectives and measures. Guidelines for Writing a Good Definition of the Problem • State the problem succinctly • Use words devoid of acronyms and industry specific jargon • Include adequate details so that the majority of readers will interpret the problem in the same way. • Describe the people involved

  15. 1B. Identify the Source of the Problem 1B.1. Generate pertinent questions for determing causes of the problem Types of Questions to ask: General: - What is the expected performance or knowledge? - Does the learner have the necessary prerequisite knowledge? - How frequently is she asked to do the pfce or use the knwldge? Training Context Only - Are there some factors out of the employee’s control that may be causing poor pfc? - Does the employee receive feedback on his/her performance? - What do you think is causing the performance discrepancy? - What do you think is causing the performance discrepancy? - What is the impact of the current level of performance on the organization? - What is the organization’s impact on the performance? - Which jobs tend to be most affected? - What incentives are in place for effective performance?

  16. 1B. Identify the Source of the Problem 1B.2.Select Data Gathering Methods to Answer the Question Data are facts, opinions or information from which answers to the questions can be drawn. Review the information gathered in Step 1A and documents from procedural manuals, training guides or job descriptions when available for background information. • Use observations if it is important to see directly what is happening or to note interactions • Use focus groups if diverse populations will be affected or if the synergy of the group. • Use face to face interviews if it is important to observe nonverbal behavior or to ask probing questions. • Use a telephone or written survey if a large number of employees or target learners are in many locations. • Use a combination of these methods if one is not good enough. • THEN GATHER AND INTERPRET THE DATA USING BASIC RESEARCH • METHODOLOGY

  17. 1C. Determine the Possible Solutions 1.C.1 Base don the data, determine the answers to the questions asked in step 1B. After the information has been collected, the data needs to be summarized before answers are formulated. The purpose of data gathering were to: • Obtain info on the underlying nature of the problem • Determine whether ther is a problem because of performance or knowledge deficiency • Determine whether instruction is an appropriate solution Decide for each problem area Whether: • Instruction alone can solve the problem • Other solutions alone can solve the problem • Instruction is needed in conjunction with other solutions

  18. 1C. Determine the Possible Solutions 1.C.2 Consider the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions If several solutions are viable, consider the following: • Probable effectiveness of each alternative • Probable cost of each alternative • Probable developmental difficulties for each alternative • Probable implementation difficulties foreach alternative • Other factors that may affect the outcome of the proposed solutions

  19. 1D. Communicate Results 1.D. The results of a needs analysis may have to be reported or communicated several teimes. At this stage the purpose of the communications is to determine whether to proceed with the project and continue with a more detailed level of analysis. The written report organizes all the data you have collected. Write a report recommending: • Instruction for problem areas identified as “instruction must be provided and is worthwhile”. • Instruction and instructional alternatives for problem areas identified as “instruction would help”. • Noninstructional solutions for problem areas identified as “instruction is not needed or is not worthwhile”. • Support your recommendations with: • Results from the data gathering • Description of instructional solutions • Rationale for the decisions made • A comparison of benefits and costs of alternative solutions

  20. A Procedure for analyzing the problem in a performance improvement situation* Define the Problem Identify the Source of the Problem Determine a possible solution Communicate the results Step 1: Analyze The Problem * (Leshin, Pollock & Reigeluth, 1994). Instructional strategies and design tactics. Englewood Cliffs: NJ, Libraries Unlimited.

  21. Readings for Next Class (Jan 27th) 1. Rothwell, J., & Kazanas, C. (1998). Chapter Three: Determining Projects Appropriate for Instructional Design Solutions Summary Presentation: Jeremy Davis 2. Ertmer, P. & Quinn, J (2003) ID Case Book: Case: 8: Lynn Dorman Summary Presentation: Kevin Schoepp 3. Problem Definition: See Slides following this slide Optional Reading & Resource : Sherry, L., & Wilson, B. (1996). Supporting Human Performance Across Disciplines: A Converging of Roles and Tools. http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~lsherry/pubs/pss.html