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Presentation. Evaluation in Pakistan. Federica Lisa , Shelter Centre. Joanna Read , Shelter Centre. Heiner Gloor , Shelter Centre. Purpose of the evaluation.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Presentation

Evaluation in Pakistan

Federica Lisa, Shelter Centre

Joanna Read, Shelter Centre

HeinerGloor, Shelter Centre

slide2

Purpose of the evaluation

  • Determine what lessons can be learned from the 2010 flood, and 2005 earthquake response in Pakistan for informing a set of Transitional Shelter Guidelines
  • Assess the value of IOM’s prefab transitional shelter programme in Kashmir (post 2005 earthquake )
slide3

Content of this presentation

  • Executive summary
    • Purpose of the evaluation
    • Overview of shelters evaluated
    • Summary of findings
  • 2005 Kashmir earthquake evaluation
    • Overview
    • Urban prefab shelter types
    • Findings
  • 3. 2010 Pakistan flood evaluation
    • Overview
    • One room shelters
    • Transitional shelters
  • 4. Conclusions
slide4

Executive summary

  • Overview of shelters evaluated
slide5

Executive summary

  • Overview of shelters evaluated
  • Kashmir (’05 Eq):
  • Prefab shelters:
  • SIDA-IOM,
  • Saudi Government
  • Turkish Red Cross
  • Samaritan’s Purse
slide6

Executive summary

  • Overview of shelters evaluated
  • Kashmir (’05 Eq):
  • Prefab shelters:
  • SIDA-IOM,
  • Saudi Government
  • Turkish Red Cross
  • Samaritan’s Purse
  • KPK (2010 flood)
  • NRC, PAKCDP, SAH transitional shelters
  • Ummah Welfare Trust reconstruction site
slide7

Executive summary

  • Overview of shelters evaluated
  • Kashmir (’05 Eq):
  • Prefab shelters:
  • SIDA-IOM,
  • Saudi Government
  • Turkish Red Cross
  • Samaritan’s Purse
  • Kashmir (’05 Eq):
  • Prefab shelters:
  • SIDA-IOM,
  • Saudi Government
  • Turkish Red Cross
  • Samaritan’s Purse
  • KPK (2010 flood)
  • NRC, PAKCDP, SAH transitional shelters
  • Ummah Welfare Trust reconstruction site
  • KPK (2010 flood)
  • NRC, PAKCDP, SAH transitional shelters
  • Ummah Welfare Trust reconstruction site
  • Punjab (2010 flood)
  • UN-Habitat one room shelter pilot project
  • UN-Habitat sandbag TS
  • IIH (Turkey) prefab TS
slide8

Executive summary

  • Overview of shelters evaluated
  • Kashmir (’05 Eq):
  • Prefab shelters:
  • SIDA-IOM,
  • Saudi Government
  • Turkish Red Cross
  • Samaritan’s Purse
  • Kashmir (’05 Eq):
  • Prefab shelters:
  • SIDA-IOM,
  • Saudi Government
  • Turkish Red Cross
  • Samaritan’s Purse
  • KPK (2010 flood)
  • NRC, PAKCDP, SAH transitional shelters
  • Ummah Welfare Trust reconstruction site
  • KPK (2010 flood)
  • NRC, PAKCDP, SAH transitional shelters
  • Ummah Welfare Trust reconstruction site
  • Punjab (2010 flood)
  • UN-Habitat one room shelter pilot project
  • UN-Habitat sandbag TS
  • IIH (Turkey) prefab TS

Sindh (2010 flood)

IOM one room shelter pilot projects

slide9

Executive summary

  • Summary of findings
  • Important to remember that transitional shelter will not be appropriate in all contexts
  • Serious consideration needs to be given to the cost of transitional shelter: if all available funds are spent on TS, who will assist with permanent reconstruction?
  • Transitional shelter is not necessarily a discrete step - should be seen as an integrated part of the response process
slide10

Executive summary

  • Summary of findings
  • Transitional shelter may be appropriate in specific cases:
          • displaced persons;
          • beneficiaries who need to focus on activities other than rebuilding for some time;
          • very vulnerable households.
  • Use local materials/techniques where possible: lack of acceptance, and setting up supply chains, can cause major delays
slide11

Executive summary

    • Purpose of the evaluation
    • Overview of shelters evaluated
    • Summary of findings
  • 2005 Kashmir earthquake evaluation
    • Overview
    • Urban prefab shelter types
    • Findings
  • 3. 2010 Pakistan flood evaluation
    • Overview
    • One room shelters
    • Transitional shelters
  • 4. Conclusions
slide12

2005 earthquake overview

  • Key facts
  • 28,000 urban houses destroyed or damaged
  • 83% housing units in Muzaffarabad damaged or destroyed
  • 95% housing units in Balakot damaged or destroyed
slide13

2005 earthquake overview

Recovery strategy (urban)

Initial payment of Rs 25,000 ($ 290) from the Government, for immediate shelter needs

10,000 prefabricated transitional shelters provided in urban areas

A further Rs150,000 ($ 1,750) paid by the Government in two tranches

slide14

2005 earthquake overview

Muzaffarabad urban scenario

Balakot urban scenario

Reconstruction

compliant to ERRA

standards

Tents

for up to

2 years

Prefab shelters

Earthquake

? Relocation

Unregulated reconstruction

Tents

for up to

1 year

Prefab shelters

Earthquake

No permanent reconstruction allowed

slide15

Urban prefab shelter types

Muzaffarabad, November 2010

  • IOM/SIDA/DAM shelter
  • Cost: $4,600 (in 2006)
  • ‘Local’ materials: aluminium frame, insulation board, coated iron sheeting
  • Parts assembled in workshops set up in town
  • Saudi Public Assistance
  • Cost: $6,300 (in 2006) inc. latrine
  • Aluminium frame, sandwich panels made in China
  • All parts imported from Saudi Arabia (‘flat pack’) and assembled on site

Balakot, November 2010

slide16

Urban prefab shelter types

Balakot, November 2010

  • Samaritan’s Purse
  • Cost: $4,500 (in 2006)
  • ‘Local’ materials: galvanised iron frame, insulation board, CGI sheeting
  • Constructed on site
  • Turkish Red Crescent
  • Cost: $ Unknown – most expensive
  • Transported via truck from Turkey
  • Modified goods container - arrives ready assembled

Muzaffarabad, November 2010

slide17

Urban prefab shelter types

Muzaffarabad, November 2010

  • Strengths
  • Shelter quality and conditions: good
  • Parts from some designs suitable for reuse in permanent constructions
  • Earthquake-safe
  • In some cases, basic designs have been replicated in permanent, seismic proof houses
slide18

Urban prefab shelter types

Balakot, November 2010

  • Weaknesses
  • Slow response time
  • High cost
  • Shelters much smaller than pre-earthquake construction
  • Very little (often no) beneficiary involvement
slide19

Findings

Balakot, November 2010

  • What made some prefab designs more popular than others?
  • Use of common/easy to understand construction techniques which can be replicated
  • Easy to reuse/resell parts:
        • Standard parts
        • Good quality parts
slide20

Findings

Balakot, November 2010

  • Lessons learned
  • Key problem was the slow response – many people stuck in tents and prefabs for 5 years
  • “Would have been better to provide money to beneficiaries to start reconstruction sooner”
  • Donors allowed to dictate the response
  • Samaritan’s Purse and some SIDA shelters much more popular due to use of standard parts
slide21

Executive summary

  • 2005 Kashmir earthquake evaluation
    • Overview
    • Urban prefab shelter types
    • Findings
  • 3. 2010 Pakistan flood evaluation
    • Overview
    • One room shelter
    • Transitional shelter
    • Permanent reconstruction
  • 4. Conclusions
slide22

2010 floods overview

Key facts

www.shelterpakistan.org

slide23

2010 floods overview

Key facts

UN OCHA Update 1st Nov 2010

www.shelterpakistan.org

* Total remaining needs = sum of provincial remaining needs – unallocated pipeline

slide24

2010 floods overview

  • ‘Early recovery’ shelter strategy
  • The affected can be (very) roughly split into three groups:
    • Possibility of return
    • Extended displacement
    • Seasonal flood migrants

Sindh Province, Pakistan, November 2010

slide25

2010 floods overview

  • ‘Early recovery’ shelter strategy
  • ‘One room shelter’ strategy selected for returnees
  • Transitional shelter strategy selected only for extended displacement and seasonal flood migrants

Sindh Province, Pakistan, November 2010

slide26

2010 floods overview

  • Major problems faced by implementers:
  • Time – water receding quickly and people start to rebuild very quickly
  • Limited funding:
      • Government assistance KPR 20,000 per family released so far for emergency needs
      • Shelter cluster is currently 14% funded*
  • Lack of technical surge capacity
  • Local building practices not flood resistant
slide27

One room shelter

  • Cost: $200-300
  • Aim to assist beneficiaries in the (re)construction of one habitable room
  • Agency assistance in form of limited materials (often doors/windows/roof) and or skilled labour, tech assistance
  • Social mobilisation and mass communication to encourage beneficiaries to lead the construction, using salvaged and/or locally available material

Sindh Province, Pakistan, November 2010

slide28

One room shelter

  • Strengths
  • Relatively cheap and fast (approx. 2 weeks)
  • Potential for upgrade/extension
  • Potential for hazard resistant features
  • Supports local market and local economy
  • Use of local and well accepted construction techniques

Sindh Province, Pakistan, November 2010

slide29

One room shelter

  • Weaknesses
  • Relies on additional money from government (via WATAN) card
  • May prevent beneficiaries from focussing on livelihood activities
  • Slow agency response, difficulties in providing sufficient technical support in time (e.g. many shelters lack DRR features)

Sindh Province, Pakistan, November 2010

slide30

One room shelter

  • Lessons learned
  • Potentially safe, durable and cost-effective if:
      • sufficient technical assistance is provided as soon as construction starts
      • funding is properly tailored to the needs of the beneficiaries

Sindh Province, Pakistan, November 2010

slide31

One room shelter

  • Lessons learned
  • Early recovery/reconstruction strategy needs to be thought out during emergency phase
  • Sometimes possible go move straight from emergency phase to reconstruction

Sindh Province, Pakistan, November 2010

slide32

Transitional shelters

Punjab Province, November 2010

  • Cost: $500+
  • Cluster strategy for:
    • those facing extended displacement; and
    • seasonal flood migrants
  • Some NGOs also using transitional shelter for:
      • beneficiaries whos primary need is to focus on agriculture
      • beneficiaries who do not have resources to start rebuilding

NRC, KPK Province, 2010

slide33

Sandbag transitional shelter

Punjab Province, November 2010

  • Currently one test shelter constructed by UN-Habitat. Originally intended for roll out to ~25 displaced families.
  • Targeted at beneficiaries who have lost their land due sand deposits.
  • Unlikely to be used on a large scale due to high cost and lack of acceptance.

UN-Habitat, Punjab Province, 2010

slide34

Sandbag transitional shelter

  • Strengths
  • relatively cheap – encourages use of material readily available (sand on site!)
  • reusable roofing material (I beam, chiq, bamboo)
  • comfortable internal conditions (good thermal performance)
  • opportunities for beneficiary involvement in construction

Punjab Province, Pakistan , November 2010

slide35

Sandbag transitional shelter

  • Weaknesses
  • Lack of acceptance from community
    • Beneficiaries not convinced that shelter is flood proof
    • Stigma of ‘poor man’s construction’.
  • Wall material not easy to reuse
  • Expensive

Punjab, Pakistan, November 2010

slide36

Sandbag transitional shelter

  • Lessons learned
  • Lots of grassroots dialogue is needed for the community to accept a new technology
  • Vital for transitional shelter to include reusable elements
  • Relatively high cost (>$500) makes this design financially unsustainable

UN-Habitat, Punjab Province, 2010

slide37

Light frame transitional shelter

NRC, KPK Province, November 2010

  • Transitional shelter being implemented while beneficiaries:
    • are busy with agriculture;
    • lack resources to rebuild
  • Design used/tested in previous programmes (e.g. in KPK)
slide38

Light frame transitional shelter

  • Strengths
  • Quick to assemble and relatively cheap
  • Some support to local markets and economy – chiq, bamboo, timber
  • Use of standard parts makes repairs easy
  • All parts are potentially reusable
  • Opportunities for some beneficiary involvement in construction

SLA, KPK Province, November 2010

slide39

Light frame transitional shelter

  • Weaknesses
  • Thermal performance is less optimal than in well built brick/mud shelters
  • Necessary to set up supply lines in order for materials to reach beneficiaries
  • Generally not locally accepted building techniques
  • Not flood resistant
  • Additional funds required for final construction – reliance on WATAN card

SLA, KPK Province, November 2010

slide40

Light frame transitional shelter

  • Lessons learned
  • Important that materials used are of good quality to allow for reuse/reselling
  • Potentially a good approach for specific cases
  • Beneficiaries may need further financial (and other) assistance for permanent reconstruction

UN-HABITAT, Sindh Province, 2010

slide41

Prefab transitional shelter

Punjab Province, November 2010

  • Cost: ~ $ 4,500 – same amount to be spent on permanent reconstruction = $9,000 total
  • Prefabs provided for village to use for 6 months while permanent buildings are being constructed. (55 homes, 2 offices, 1 school, latrines)
  • Prefabricated shelter components imported by train and lorry from Turkey
slide42

Prefab transitional shelter

  • Strengths
  • Quick to assemble (1 hour?)
  • Good shelter quality and durability
  • Complete shelter kits are potentially stockpilable and reusable in another response
  • Shelters are elevated – protection against minor flooding

Punjab Province, November 2010

slide43

Prefab transitional shelter

  • Weaknesses
  • Very expensive (~$4,500)
  • Unlikely to be suitable for warm, humid climates
  • Repairs potentially difficult due to imported, non standard parts
  • ‘Camp like’ layout of transitional shelters
  • Unlikely that shelters will be reused due to easily damaged parts and the large logistic effort required

Punjab Province, November 2010

slide44

Prefab transitional shelter

  • Lessons learned
  • Donor driven approach can lead to less than ideal responses (all or nothing)
  • Compared with means available this appears to be an extremely inefficient use of resources
  • Prefabricated shelters are unlikely to be suitable for use in rural areas

Punjab Province, November 2010

slide45

Executive summary

    • Purpose of the evaluation
    • Overview of shelters evaluated
    • Summary of findings
  • 2005 Kashmir earthquake evaluation
    • Overview
    • Urban prefab shelter types
    • Findings
  • 3. 2010 Pakistan flood evaluation
    • Overview
    • One room shelters
    • Transitional shelters
  • 4. Conclusions
slide46

Conclusions

  • Important to start to plan for early recovery in parallel with emergency phase
  • The cost of a transitional shelter should be seriously considered as part of the overall response. Would funds be better spent on more rapid reconstruction?
slide47

Conclusions

  • Better coordination needed at various levels:
        • inter-hub
        • headquarters-hubs
        • agencies - Shelter Cluster
    • Institutional memory and technical knowledge sharing for better coordination and more timely response
  • Consider investing in people
slide48

Thank you

  • Questions?