slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
The role of Regional Innovation Systems in a Globalising Economy: Comparing Knowledge Bases and Institutional Frameworks

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 29

The role of Regional Innovation Systems in a Globalising Economy: Comparing Knowledge Bases and Institutional Frameworks - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 250 Views
  • Uploaded on

The role of Regional Innovation Systems in a Globalising Economy: Comparing Knowledge Bases and Institutional Frameworks of Nordic Clusters. Bj ørn T. Asheim & Lars Coenen Based on and financed by project ‘Nordic SMEs and Regional Innovation Systems’ (Nordic Innovation Centre). CIRCLE.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The role of Regional Innovation Systems in a Globalising Economy: Comparing Knowledge Bases and Institutional Frameworks' - tao


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1
The role of Regional Innovation Systems in a Globalising Economy: Comparing Knowledge Bases and Institutional Frameworks of Nordic Clusters

Bjørn T. Asheim & Lars Coenen

Based on and financed by project ‘Nordic SMEs and Regional Innovation Systems’

(Nordic Innovation Centre)

circle
CIRCLE
  • Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy
  • New centre of excellence in innovation system research at Lund University
  • One of four centres in Sweden
  • Uppsala, Chalmers and KTH
slide3
Outline of the presentation
  • Project ‘Nordic SMEs and Regional Innovation Systems’
    • aim / case studies / final report
    • findings / policy recommendations
  • Comparing Knowledge Bases and Institutional Frameworks of Nordic Clusters
slide4
Project aim:

To investigate the existence of similarities and differences vis-à-vis competitiveness and innovativeness between clusters of Nordic SMEs in different regions and sectors and to compare the extent to which regional factors underlie the success/failure of clusters in comparison to industry/sector specific factors

slide5
Structure of final report
  • Introduction
  • Conceptual clarification
  • Summary of case studies
  • Comparative case analysis
  • Policy recommendations
  • Downloaded from my home page at Lund University
slide7
Comparative analysis:
  • SMEs, innovations and innovation systems: a broad perspective
  • Across-the-board innovativeness in high, medium and low tech SMEs as a basis for competitiveness
  • Multi-scalar SME-innovation systems linkages in the light of spatially distributed knowledge reservoirs
  • Geographical differentiation based on industrial knowledge base
slide8
Comparative analysis:
  • SMEs, clusters and cluster life-cycles
  • Horizontal vs. Vertical collaboration in innovation
  • Relationships between SMEs and large firms
  • Cluster life cycles and the need for different policy approaches
slide9
Comparative analysis:
  • Social capital and trust: cornerstones for regional collaboration in innovation
  • Understanding innovation as interactive learning implies that cooperation is necessary for the competitiveness of SMEs
  • Social capital is defined as features of social organisation that facilitate action and cooperation for mutual benefit such as networks, shared norms and values and trust
  • Initiatives in social networking arrangements
  • seem to work well in a Nordic cluster context
slide10
Comparative analysis:
  • SMEs and the regional knowledge infrastructure
  • Research collaboration between SMEs and knowledge infrastructure is not a cure-all
  • University spin-offs is a typical high-tech phenomenon. Managerial skills are often lacking
  • Regional supply of skilled labor most important general innovation support that universities can provide SMEs
slide11
Knowledge based versus learning economies: What’s the difference?
  • Most strategic resource  knowledge
  • Most fundamental activity  learning
  • But:
  • Learning economy: innovation across-the-board
  • Knowledge based economy: focus on high-tech
science base vs knowledge base
Science base vs knowledge base
  • Important to distinguish between:
    • Science base
    • Knowledge base

And between:

    • R&D intensive industries (OECD view)
    • Knowledge intensive activities
distributed knowledge base
Distributed knowledge base
  • Transition from an internal knowledge base of a firms to a distributed knowledge base of firms where the whole value system of a firm or value chain of a product must be taken into consideration when the knowledge intensity of a product is determined
  • More and more highly complicated combinations of different knowledge types codified (embodied and disembodied), artisan and experience based, tacit knowledge
distributed knowledge base14
Distributed knowledge base
  • The knowledge intensity enters as embodied knowledge incorporated into machinery and equipment or as intermediate inputs (components and materials) into production processes of other firms in the value chain/cluster
  • This demonstrates that the relevant knowledge base for many industries is not internal to the industry, but is distributed across a range of technologies, actors and industries, making the OECD ranking of R&D intensive industries less relevant
theoretical perspectives
Theoretical perspectives:
  • Different types of RIS (=systemic linkages and relations between regionally dominant production structures and knowledge infrastructures)
  • Territorially embedded RIS (’grassroots RIS’)
  • Regional networked innovation systems (’network RIS’)
  • Regionalised national innovation systems (’dirigiste RIS’)
knowledge bases clusters and ris
Knowledge bases, clusters and RIS
  • The relevance of different types of RIS must also be placed in a context of the knowledge base of various industries
  • Innovation processes of firms are strongly shaped by their specific knowledge base
  • Distinguish between two types of knowledge base:

a) analytical (science based)

b) synthetic (engineering based)

clusters ris
Clusters - RIS
  • The different knowledge bases of industries have implications for the relations between clusters and RIS as well as for the definition of a cluster
  • Distinction between:

- The existence of ’pure’ regional clusters where relations to RIS are established at a later stage of a cluster’s life cycle in order to support localised learning and innovation in the cluster (auxiliary), and

- The existence of relations between clusters and RIS from the emergence of the cluster as a necessary input in the development of the cluster (integrated)

clusters ris19
Clusters - RIS
  • The traditional constellation of industrial clusters surrounded by innovation supporting organisations in a RIS is normally found in contexts of industries with a synthetic knowledge base
  • The existence of RIS as a necessary part of the development of an emerging cluster will normally be the case of industries based on an analytical knowledge base
slide20
Relationship RIS-cluster
  • synthetic knowledge base: tendency for loose coupling, auxiliary configuration
  • analytic knowledge base: tendency for necessary coupling, integral configuration
clusters and localisation economies specialisation
Clusters and localisation economies (specialisation)
  • Sectoral specialised clusters exploit localisation economies
  • Sectoral specialisation can be the result of different industrial development paths
  • In traditional cluster-RIS relations, based on industries with a synthetic knowledge base, the logic behind building RIS is to support and strengthen localised learning of existing industrial specialisations in a region, i.e. to promote historical technological trajectories based on ’sticky’ knowledge in the region
clusters and localisation economies
Clusters and localisation economies
  • In contexts of relations between clusters and RIS as a necessary condition for the emergence and growth of the clusters it is a question of promoting new and emerging economic activity based on industries with an analytical knowlegde base, requiring close and systemic industry-university cooperation and interaction in e.g. science parks, located in proximity of knowledge creating organisations (e.g. (technical) universities
clusters and urbanization economies diversity
Clusters and urbanization economies (diversity)
  • Clusters can also be found in regions exploiting urbanization economies
  • Such regions, constituted by an urban agglomeration, are characterised by a diversified industrial base in contrast to the specialised base of e.g. industrial districts’ type of clusters
  • I.e. Different historical and emerging technological trajectories co-exist
clusters and urbanization economies
Clusters and urbanization economies
  • Within urban agglomerations one can identify the existence of relations between clusters and RIS as a necessary condition for cluster development as well as traditional clusters which established links with the RIS at a later stage in their life cycle. However, one can argue that the diversity of urbanization economies is especially important in the promotion of radical innovations (cities as creative nodes/geography of talent), and, thus, of great significance for industries based on an analytical knowledge base
slide26
Varieties of capitalism/varieties of regional innovation systems
  • Useful in comparative analysis of countries, no focus on regions
  • Strong dichotomization
  • Inert and inherited institutional landscape (policy learning)
  • Application in regional context thus far:
  • Entrepreneurial Regional Innovation Systems (ERIS) versus Institutional Regional Innovation Systems (IRIS) (Asheim & Gertler, 2004; Cooke, 2004)
iris cooke 2001 2004 associated with coordinated market economies
IRIS (Cooke 2001/2004)(associated with coordinated market economies)
  • R&D driven
  • User-producer relations
  • Technology focused
  • Incremental innovation
  • Bank borrowing
  • External supply-chain networks
  • Science park
eris new economy innovation system associated with liberal market economies
ERIS/New economy innovation system(associated with liberal market economies)
  • Venture capital driven
  • Serial start-ups
  • Market-focused
  • Incremental and disruptive
  • Initial public offerings
  • Incubators (university – industry relations)
knowledge bases institutional frameworks
Knowledge bases – institutional frameworks
  • Synthetic knowledge base - IRIS
  • Analytical knowledge base - ERIS

): Regional differentiation of innovation policies (US/European blend) at intra- and interregional levels within countries, representing different degrees of efficiency with respect to knowledge exploration, examination and exploitation

): Regionalisation of regional policies (innovation, entrepreneurship and talent are increasingly important) in many countries

ad